Texts published in the ‘Linguistische Treffen in Wrocław’ are available in the Open Access on the basis of the CC BY-SA license.
Linguistische Treffen in Wrocław
Issue 16 (2019): II
Edited by: Iwona Bartoszewicz (University of Wrocław), Joanna Szczęk (University of Wrocław), Artur Tworek (University of Wrocław)
Kontrastive Überlegungen: Schimpfen Lateiner anders als Deutsche? / Contrastive Reflections: Is Swearing in Latin Different from Swearing in German?
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-1 (published online: 2020-02-29)
Swearing and cursing are immediate and obvious expressions of emotions. While this kind of communication almost certainly exists in almost all cultures and languages, studies about it are generally limited to the individual language, or are often conducted from a popular science perspective. As far as the German language is concerned, the use of insulting and swear words is associated with the discourse of scatology, morphologized and lexicalized in word formation, phraseologisms, etc. Yet, for the Latin language such analyses are almost completely missing. My contribution aims at a typological comparison of Latin and German, especially in the period of their direct contact – the Middle Ages.
Die Analyse von Reiseblognamen – ein Überblick / The Analyze of Travelling Blogs – Reconnaissance
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-2 (published online: 2020-02-29)
Nowadays, more and more aspects of everyday life is shifting into internet and appearing a totally new creatures like blogs. The same thing applies to traditional articles in newspapers or magazines which are replacing by theatrical blogs. The main aim of this article is to check what kind of linguistic procedures are used to create creative names of travelling blogs.
Von Komplimenten, ihren Erwiderungen und Gefühlen sozialer Verbundenheit: Ein Beispiel zur Integration von Sprechakten im DaF-Unterricht / On Compliments, Good Vibes and Solidarity: An Example of Integrating Speech Acts into German Language Teaching
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-3 (published online: 2020-02-29)
Compliments and compliment responses are social actions that reflect norms of politeness and solidarity among speakers. These compliment/responses are negotiated among interactants who employ varying response strategies in different language/culture environments. A lack of knowledge about preferred strategies may cause cultural misunderstandings and feelings of disconnectedness. This article provides a concrete plan for implementing a lesson on compliment/responses in advanced beginning German language courses. The lesson plan is informed by conversation analytical research and pursues a teaching approach that nurtures interactional competence for enabling students to utilize culturally appropriate response strategies to actively engage with speakers of the target culture, creating positive feelings of appreciation and social harmony.
Zur Vielfalt von Bezeichnungen für Migranten am lexikographischen Material / About the Diversity of Names Describing Migrants – On Lexicographical Material
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-4 (published online: 2020-02-29)
The purpose of this article is to present the vocabulary describing migrants over the history of the Polish language. The author conducts quantitative analysis and describes chosen expressions. The research material consists of 73 lexemes collected from 12 dictionaries of the Polish language. It should be emphasized that the dictionaries mentioned contain both Old Polish and modern lexemes. The emphasis here was placed on the examples found in three dictionaries: „Słownik języka polskiego” edited by Zdanowicz et al. (19th century), „Słownik języka polskiego” by Jan Karłowicz, Adam Kryński and Władysław Niedźwiedzki (20th century) and „Słownik języka polskiego” edited by Witold Doroszewski (20th century). The dictionaries mentioned above contain the largest number of names referring to migrants. The considerations presented in this paper not only refer to the lexical level, but also to historical and societal motivations that have contributed to the emergence of new terms of this kind.
Elementy konstrukcyjne lokomotywy spalinowej M62 w języku ukraińskim – problem zapożyczeń / Construction Elements of the Diesel Locomotive (M62) in Ukrainian Language – The Problem of Loanwords
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-5 (published online: 2020-02-29)
The article analyzes the way terminology connected to the field of railway transport function in the Ukrainian language. The research material consists of examples of names separated from the cross-section of the M62 diesel locomotive. The analysis of the collected lexical material was carried out following the key of loanwords. The study shows that based on the Ukrainian language, the terms in the field of rail transport come mainly from ancient languages (Latin, Greek – 43% of collected research material). To a lesser extent, from English, French, German and Dutch. Moreover, the importance of the Russian language was pointed out, which should be considered the last link in the discussed process. In many cases, the appearance of the so-called “traveling loanwords” was observed.
Sozialpsychologie oder empirische Rhetorik? / Social Psychology or Empirical Rhetoric?
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-6 (published online: 2020-02-29)
For Aristotle, rhetoric was simply an applied technique of persuasion (techne rhetoriké), i. e. an aptitude or producing opinions. From today’s vantage point, it comprised not only the art of fine speech, but also the theory of communication, the theory of argumentation and the essentials of psychology and drama. The problem of multi-aspects of persuasion and argumentation was last comprehensively presented by Aristotle, who interrelated rhetoric with logic, the speaker’s ethos (reliability) and the theory of rhetorical affections, which were aimed at influencing the feelings of the listeners (pathos). It was not until the turn of the forties and fifties of the twentieth century that researchers took a new interest in techniques of exerting influence on people. The experimental methods of Carl Hovland, Fritz Heider, Leo Festinger and others have shaped the modern scientific formula of the old affections theory, now called social psychology. It follows that rhetoric and social psychology, the two fields of influencing people, are closely linked, what Aristotle was undoubtedly aware of. The aim of this article is to find an answer to the question about the relationship between the affections theory and social psychology: do we have the right to call it empirical rhetoric?
Rhetorik in der Zeit nach der Wahrheit: Die Theorie der politischen Lügen oder das moderne Wesen der Politik / Rhetoric in the Posttruth Era: A Theory of the Political Lie or Modern Essence of Politics?
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-7 (published online: 2020-02-29)
The article concerns the matter connected with relations between political rhetoric and unethical manipulation leading to success in public sphere. The research tool are references to the tradition of classical ethics and to modern philosophers like Derrida and Hannah Arendt. The background of discussion is offensive nature of public discourse and decline of political tactics striving for the common good. I am also referring to the significance of lie in European culture from era of Homer to our times. In this context, the most difficult question to discuss is the exact definition of a political lie, because it is hard to refer a true/ false dichotomy regarding political worldviews. In conclusion I am presenting the research methodology that distinguishes manipulation from sound political action.
Zum Umgang mit den absoluten Sprachlakunen in den Wörterbüchern am Beispiel des Alltagswortschatzes im Sprachpaar Deutsch-Polnisch / How to Deal with Absolute Language Lacunas in the Dictionaries on Examples of Everyday Vocabulary in the Language Pair German-Polish
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-8 (published online: 2020-02-29)
This article refers to lacuna as an ethnopsycholinguistic research category. Absolute language lacunas, which are revealed in the comparison of the German and Polish language and culture in relation to lexis, will be characterized in more detail. Their presence is both a sign and a cause of non-equivalence. They can be eliminated in the delacunisation process by applying concrete translation strategies.
Kulturmarkierter Wortschatz des Deutschen: Plurikulturalität und -regionalität / Culture Marked Vocabulary of German: Pluriculturality and – Regionality
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-9 (published online: 2020-02-29)
The article focuses on the thesis that the culture marked vocabulary of German expresses pluriculturality and – regionality and evokes lexical polyonymy. This is analyzed and described in the framework of a linguo-cultural research based on selected nominations of realia in German inside and outside the German-speaking cultural area (DACH region and Russia), which are tied to pluri-, inter- and transcultural concepts. It should be noted that the lexical polyonymy in the culturally marked vocabulary of German is to a great extent a specific expression of the linguistic diatopic / regional variety structure.
Semantisch-syntaktische Analyse von Konstruktionen nach dem Ansatz von Adele Goldberg / A Semantico-Syntactic Analysis of Constructions: Adele Goldberg’s Constructionist Approach
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-10 (published online: 2020-02-29)
The author analyses prepositional constructions along the lines of Goldberg’s cognitive construction grammar. The paper starts with a discussion of Goldberg’s definition of a construction and the main theoretical assumptions of her approach. The semantic analysis of a construction is based on its contextual meaning as related to the speech event and then subsequently related to its conceptual frame, that is, its predicate-argument structure. Such an analysis of prepositional constructions allows a much wider scope of a construction than has been so far considered. It also allows the analyst to identify an abundance of a series of phrasemes which have not been accounted for even when analysing a single particular preposition (the Polish preposition ‘w’: ‘in’) in dictionaries or the studies of prepositions.
Die interaktionale Prozessierung von Emotionen in Instruktionssituationen / Processing Emotions in Interactive Instructional Settings
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-11 (published online: 2020-02-29)
This article features a short review of analyzing affective stance in interaction. Additionally, it exemplifies strategies of processing emotions in instructional settings by contrasting Pilates and physical therapy in neurorehabilitation. For example, negative emotions during physical therapy are handled with verbal or bodily means. The emotional state while doing Pilates is associated with the relationship between trainer and client, with group cohesion, with having fun during physical activity and with sustaining motivation. The corpus for the multimodal analysis are video tapings of natural interactions.
Auch das Beschimpfen ist eine Art, miteinander zu reden / Even Insulting is a Way of Talking to Each Other
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-12 (published online: 2020-02-29)
Emotions are an indispensable part of human life, and consequently of speech. On the other hand, they are put under pressure by the culture – not least by the good nursery – so that, politely, one does not always express directly what is important to one‘s heart. Goethe summed it up in Faust II as follows: “In German you lie when you are polite” (see also Szczęk 2012). Sometimes, however, one is forced to let the emotion run wild. This is exemplified in the article on Günter Grass’ Hundejahre and Peter Handke’s Publikumsbeschimpfung. On the other hand, the article focuses on an important aspect of the subconscious emotive, namely verbal aggression as a substitute for assault. The author joins Meinunger (2017: 11 f.), where he says: “Ranting is much better than his reputation. […] It is essentially a substitute for physical violence. […] must be seen as a victory of culture over nature.” At the same time he is contradicted when he also summarizes hate speech under ranting.
Handelsnamen für Bier im Polnischen. Versuch einer Typologie / Trade Names of Beer in the Polish Language – An Attempt at a Typology
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-13 (published online: 2020-02-29)
The aim of the study is to classify trade names of beer occurring in the Polish language. The collected material comprises 700 trade names of beer. Names of beer were divided according to their meaning into the two basic groups: the names of direct motivation and names of conventional motivation. The paper has shown that among the Polish beer names the dominating group are monolexic nouns. The most numerous groups are place names and related to them. There is a tendency to form sophisticated names.
„Ehrlich gesagt“ und Verwandtes – Emotionen und Routineformeln / „Ehrlich gesagt“ and Related – Emotions and Routine Formulas
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-14 (published online: 2020-02-29)
Linguistic routines are characteristic for human communication. They give the communication partners a certain security. This allows the producer to take the time to structure the content of the following in an appropriate way. They belong to certain rituals: the recipient has the opportunity to adopt a certain attitude towards what is expected before making a statement. The paper starts from a case that is not that frequently used in contemporary German, but salient, namely „Ehrlich gesagt, ... “, and examines the functions of routine formulas in emotional language / in emotional speaking and also which changes they are subject to.
Konzeptualisierung der Ironie in Aphorismen und anderen humoristischen Kurztexten / Possibilities of Conceptualization of Irony in Aphorisms, Proverbs and Other Humorous Texts
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-15 (published online: 2020-02-29)
The aim of the article is to present a general image of Irony functioning in the public sphere and possibilities of conceptualization of Irony from a sociological and linguistic perspective. Next, attention is turned to the specificity of its indicators and functions. The empirical part depicts the image of Irony conceptualization in selected aphorisms, proverbs and other short humorous texts and illustrates various (subjective) interpretive models of this category
Allgemein amerikanische Aussprachenorm: die Spezifik der Variierung der kodifizierten phonemischen Struktur des Wortes / General American: Codified Word Phonemic Structure Variation Specifics
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-16 (published online: 2020-02-29)
Variation is one of the salient features of the codified pronunciation norm of English. In General American pronunciation a word phonemic structure, among other word structures, is most subject to variation. The investigation of word phonemic structure variation in codified General American pronunciation has allowed it to establish the inventory of phonemes and the kinds of their variation that reflect the specifics of this process in this national variant of English.
Artikulation des /r/-Lautes bei italienisch-und polnischsprachigen DaF-Lernern. Analyse der Ergebnisse anhand einer auditiven Untersuchung / Articulation of /r/-Sound by Italian and Polish GFL Speakers. Analysis of the Results Based on an Auditory Examination
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-17 (published online: 2020-02-29)
The main purpose of this paper was to highlight the differences and similarities between the articulation of the German /r/-variants as enunciated by Italian and Polish native speakers learning German. On the basis of the conducted auditive research, this paper examines data gathered during the study of the realizations of the study subjects. The results of study have been presented in the form of diagrams.
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Akzentuierungsmarker ukrainischer Adjektonyme aus typologischer Perspektive / The Accent Signs Ukrainian Adjectonyms from the Typological Point of View
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-18 (published online: 2020-02-29)
In the article, suggested peculiarities of the stress of Ukrainian adjectonyms are investigated, also from the multilateral point of view. The proposed article explores the morphonological functions of stress in adjectival word-formation. It is emphasized that with all its specificity the system of the accent of Ukrainian adjectonyms is subject to the main accentuation laws of Ukrainian language. It has been established that stress is the most important means by which a word is formed. Morphological accent origins consists in morphological derivativeness which is displayed in that derivative either preserves the base of producing word and him accentuation, or transforms them for some standard rules.
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Lautliche Wechselwirkung im Berndeutschen / Speech Sounds Interaction in the Bern German
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-19 (published online: 2020-02-29)
The article is dedicated to studying the assimilative processes in the Bernese German phonetics. It points out the dynamic character of the modern Bernese German sound system and shows that the realization of the Bernese German vowels and consonants is influenced by both, the other Swiss German dialects especially the Zurich German on the one hand and the Standard German language on the other. The Bernese German vowel and consonant system develops in accordance with the universal principles such as saving of pronunciation efforts and acceleration of the speech tempo. Thus, it is subject to modifications like sound weakening, co-articulation or redistribution of syllables. At the same time, there still remain specific characteristics of the Bernese sounds realization that are connected to pronunciation habits of Bernese dialect speakers. These include the complete muting of semi-voiced consonants, the use of transient sounds in the intervocalic position at the syllable and word boundaries as well as the high functional strain of the vocalic allophone of the phoneme. /l/.
Ukrainischer Englischakzent: Wurzeln, Gründe und Grundfunktionen / Ukrainian English Accent: Roots, Reasons and Basic Features
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-20 (published online: 2020-02-29)
The paper explores the origin of a foreign accent in non-native speech. Deviations from the pronunciation norm in the articulation of English vowels and consonants by Ukrainian learners of English form a dynamic system of specific features correlating with the degree of foreign language competence. Phonetic interference of native language production and perception habits into the foreign language performance has its psychological and linguistic reasons. Divergence of phonological and phonetic features of native and foreign languages, automated articulations transferred into the foreign speech shape the specific character of the foreign accent. The contrastive analysis of the articulatory bases of English and Ukrainian as well as the analysis of actual phonetic deviations enabled to single out salient features of Ukrainian English accent.
Assimilationsphänomene des Stimmtons im modernen Ukrainischen aus multilateralen Perspektive / The Phenomenon of Sonority Assimilation in the Modern Ukrainian Language from a Multilateral Perspective
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-21 (published online: 2020-02-29)
The article presents assimilation cases between consonant sounds, found especially on the boundary of different rhythmic structures in the modern Ukrainian language. The author has monitored scientific works and manuals for higher educational institutions, orthoepic dictionaries focusing on the researchers’ attention to the phenomenon of sonority assimilation. Some of the phenomena are presented from a multilateral perspective.
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Persuasivität argumentativer Operatoren in polnischer und ukrainischer Sprache am Beispiel von Präsidentenreden: eine funktionale und prosodische Analyse / Persuasiveness of Argumentative Operators in Polish and Ukrainian on the Example of Presidential Speeches: Functional and Prosodic Analysis
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-22 (published online: 2020-02-29)
The aim of the article is to analyze the speeches of the presidents of Poland and Ukraine. This article is about specific words, called argumentative operators, which have an important persuasive function at the metatextual level of language. The main purpose of this text is to compare the use of argumentative operators for their persuasive properties in the New Year’s speeches from 2018 of both politicians. The textual functions and prosodic properties of operators have been analyzed.
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Abstammungsunsicherheiten. Versuche einer geschichtlichen und sprachlichen Klärung / Ancestry Uncertainties. Attempts to Explain them through History and Language
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-23 (published online: 2020-02-29)
For the German-Polish linguistic situation in the Silesia supraregion, ancestry uncertainties of its inhabitants are not uncommon. Due to the centuries-old immigration processes, the balance between belonging and strangeness is not stable. Mechanisms that contribute to this balance can be seen in the rudimentary phonetic language structure of the language island residents.
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Gehen Vokalverlängerungen mit Fokusakzenten einher? / Are Vowel Extensions Accompanied by Focus Accents?
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-24 (published online: 2020-02-29)
The aim of this paper is to analyse and to compare the vowel extension in the academic spoken texts in German and Italian. It contains corpus-based analysis of lectures, which were published on web page gewiss.uni-leipzig.de. In this study the function of vowel extension is established. Furthermore, the author of this article has attempted to answer the question, if vowel extensions are accompanied by focus accents.
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Vielfalt ist das Gewürz der Aussprache des Englischen: Alternative Aussprachen phonemischer Strukturen in der RP-Aussprache als eine sprachliche und didaktische Frage / Variety is the Spice of the Pronunciation of English: Alternative Pronunciations of the Word Phonemic Structures in Received Pronunciation as a Linguistic and Didactic Issue
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-25 (published online: 2020-02-29)
The paper presents the results of analysis of free phonemic variation in word phonemic structures in RP as its striking feature. Alternative pronunciation variants of words are created by vowels, consonants, and a combination of both when in free variation in a segmental composition of words. Free phonemic variation is conditioned by the position / phonetic environment of the alternating phoneme(s) in a word. The positional specification of free phonemic variation and the operation of a number of other factors substantiate the inner systemic character of free phoneme variation in the composition of English words in PR. EFL learners should be aware of existing alternative variants of words and their liability for change in the course of time.
Phonostilistische Besonderheiten des deutschen Reimdiskurses / Phonostilistic Pecularities of German Rhyming Discourse
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-26 (published online: 2020-02-29)
The vocal side of language has aroused the interest of scientists and researchers since antiquity. This direction in linguistic research is still relevant today, as evidenced by numerous treatises and experiments. In the present contribution, the authors tried to generalize and to analyze the most important means of phonostilistics and their realization in different types of rhyming discourse, such as nursery rhymes, children’s poems, puzzles, lyrical poems etc. It has been proved very clearly that alliteration, assonance, phonetic imitation, phonetic symbolism as well as linguistic design are characterized by the aesthetic function as well. They create a special atmosphere in a finished work and thus achieve a certain emotional influence not only on the listener but also on the reader. This realizes the existence of the finest thread between the author and the auditorium, for which his rhyming work is forseen.
Prinzipien der Ausspracheschulung aus philologischer Sicht / Phonology / Phonetics / Phonodidactics – On the Principles of Pronunciation Training from a Philological Point of View
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-27 (published online: 2020-02-29)
The philological pronunciation training is based on scientific knowledge from the field of phonology and phonetics, which are then worked out in the so-called phonodidactics. However, it is not uncommon for phonological approaches to be hardly applicable in foreign language didactics. In this context, the well-known theory of distinctive features is a prime example. In this article, principles are formulated that optimize the effectiveness of foreign language didactic phonetics.
Sprachunterricht im frühen Alter – Aber wie? / Language Lessons at an Early Age – But how?
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-28 (published online: 2020-02-29)
The role of foreign language teaching at an early age is proving very important today for a variety of reasons. There are various approaches to this topic in the literature, many of which point out that in the development of the human brain, certain phases can be identified that should be taken into account in foreign language learning. These phases are referred to in the literature using the time window metaphor. The various aspects of language learning by young learners will be addressed in the volume published in 2019, the results of which will be presented in the paper.
Valenz- und Dependenztheorie – traditionelle und neue Anwendungsbereiche / Valency and Dependency Theory – Traditional and New Application Fields
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-29 (published online: 2020-02-29)
The anthology „Valency and Dependency. Theory and Practice“ is a commemorative publication in honor of Prof. Ulrich Engel on the occasion of his 90th birthday. The book contains 22 contributions (authored by former PhD-students, co-workers, colleagues and friends) which are closely linked to linguistic interests and research activities of Ulrich Engel (including (co-)heading of international research projects in contrastive grammar). They cover a wide range of problems in dependency, valency and constituency theory, contrastive grammar and lexicography. The following review briefly summarizes the goals and results of each of the 22 articles.
Die deutsche FREIHEIT aus der kognitiven und diskurslinguistischen Perspektive / The German FREIHEIT from a Cognitive and Discourse Linguistic Perspective
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-30 (published online: 2020-02-29)
In the review article the book of Elżbieta Pawlikowska-Asendrych Das Konzept der deutschen FREIHEIT im kognitiven Untersuchungsparadigma. Eine linguistische Diskursanalyse has been discussed. First, the interdisciplinary character of the reviewed publication has been pointed out. Further, the article considers the theoretical and empirical parts of the work.
Sprachliche Etikette im polnisch-deutschen Vergleich lexikographisch erfasst / Etiquette in the Language in the Polish-German Comparison Recorded Lexicographically
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-31 (published online: 2020-02-29)
Politeness is a phenomenon that has recently been linguistically studied. These are linguistic forms and formulas that can be used in certain communication situations. The so-called pragmatic component plays an important role here. This is particularly evident in the case of interspecific confrontation. This can be helped by bilingual lexicographical works, which can be of great help to all a foreign language learner. The article discusses the advantages of the recently published lexicographical works of Małgorzata Marcjanik, Silvia Bonacchi, and Agnieszka Frączek: Polsko-niemiecki słownik etykiety językowej.
Fremdsprachenunterricht als Kommunikation unter Berücksichtigung von gehörlosen Lernern / Foreign Language Teaching as Communication Including Students with Hearing Disfunction
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.16-32 (published online: 2020-02-29)
How do people with the hearing impairments communicate with hearing people? Is it possible for oralists to learn foreign language? These questions are a starting point of the reviewed book. There is a need to broaden the scope of foreign language teaching for students with hearing disfunction as a part of inclusive teaching.