• Linguistische Treffen in Wrocław •

ISSN: 2084-3062 • e-ISSN: 2657-5647 • DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff • Współczynnik odrzuceń: 30% (2021)

Teksty publikowane w czasopiśmie „Linguistische Treffen in Wrocław” są udostępniane w wolnym dostępie (Open Access) na podstawie licencji CC BY-SA.

Linguistische Treffen in Wrocław

Numer 20 (2021): II

Redakcja: Iwona Bartoszewicz (Uniwersytet Wrocławski), Joanna Szczęk (Uniwersytet Wrocławski), Artur Tworek (Uniwersytet Wrocławski)

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Entwicklungstrends und Forschungsperspektiven im Bereich der Linguistik. Überblick anhand der Zeitschrift „Linguistische Treffen in Wrocław“ / Development Trends and Research Perspectives in the Field of Linguistics. Overview Based on the journal “Linguistische Treffen in Wrocław”

Joanna Szczęk, Uniwersytet Wrocławski (ORCID: 0000-0001-8721-6661)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-1 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 21–34

Słowa kluczowe: „Linguistische Treffen in Wrocław“, czasopismo naukowe, trendy naukowe, językoznawstwo, czasopismo językoznawcze

“Linguistische Treffen in Wrocław” is a scientific journal that has been present in the scientific world at the Department of German Studies at the University of Wrocław in Poland since 2007. 13 years of editorial activity is documented in the form of 20 volumes of the journal. The journal is an organ that offers researchers from all over the world a scientific discussion platform. So far, 573 scientific articles have been published in 20 volumes of the journal, which are devoted to various questions of linguistics and illustrate the wide variety of research in linguistics. 194 texts come from the researchers from abroad. The authors of the contributions come from 20 countries around the world and 3 continents. The circle of authors is constantly expanding. The editorial team also strives to introduce the highest standards in editorial work. The article provides an overview of the achievements of the editorial team of “Linguistische Treffen in Wrocław” and their authors to date. Mechanisms for quality assurance and strategies for increasing the visibility and recognition of the journal in the scientific world deserve special attention, which can be seen in the fact that “Linguistische Treffen in Wrocław” has become an important publication medium for Germanistic linguists.

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Uwagi wstępne do analizy komunikacji na forach fanów tenisa ziemnego / Introductory Remarks to the Analysis of Communication on Tennis Fan Forums

Magdalena Duś, Uniwersytet Jagielloński (ORCID: 0000-0002-5792-4496)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-2 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 35–55

Słowa kluczowe: forum tenisa, komunikacja fanów, język fanów

The rapid development of communication in the digital space leads to the emergence of new, media-constituted text types as sources of information and communication practices in which the identity of fans also manifests itself linguistically. The object of discussion in this article is fan communication in tennis forums and the linguistic expression of forum users with its specificity. For the purpose of the introductory analysis of the language level, entries from a German and a Polish tennis forum will be considered. The structural and network-specific components of a forum are taken into ac- count, which can in any case determine the communication strategies of fans. The starting point of the consideration is the definition of the fan and fandom profile in the references. It is emphasised that fans represent common interests and use the internet and other technologies to share opinions and information, to develop forum resources or to build feelings of belonging. It is to emphasised that in the case of tennis forums, one is often dealing with a professional discourse that requires its participants to have expert knowledge of the sport and a receptive and productive use of tennis language. The study presented for the purposes of this paper is an introduction to the analysis of tennis fans’ language using the social network language research model developed by Szurawitzki (2010). Szurawitzki’s model can be adapted for comparative research, whose interdisciplinary po- tential deserves special attention. With regard to the language behaviour of tennis fans in selected examples, which takes place via simplified statements or even coded expressions, it is concluded that there are only a few differences. In the German tennis forum, colloquial language dominates, with an emphasis on neutral posting. The neutral style in the Polish example of the forum is altered by the use of vulgarisms or swear words, which appear in a hidden form. In addition to informative statements, emotional reactions to posts by other users and subjective opinions can be distinguished, with individual posts following forum-specific conventions that facilitate their reception. Noteworthy is the role of emoticons, which have a phatic function, accelerate the speed of message creation and are mostly used to express moods, behaviours and emotional states of the author. Due to the popu- larity of this genre, its availability and the possibility of directly acquiring expertise on the chosen topic, the reservoir of forums will continue to grow quantitatively (quantitatively and structurally, their transformations seem to be complete) as long as they ensure a platform for the free exchange of opinions on all kinds of topics.

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Sind wir Opfer der Sprache? / Are We Victims of our Languages?

Hans Giessen, Jan Kochanowski Universität in Kielce (ORCID: 0000-0002-4024-1664)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-3 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 57–68

Słowa kluczowe: ramowanie, lingwistyka kognitywna

The article is based on a lecture given 3 January 2021 at SWR in Baden-Baden. The presentation style was basically retained for this publication, but it was revised and updated. On the occasion of current discus- sions in Germany, the overview lecture dealt with the topic of framing, i.e. the question of whether and how much people‘s thinking and possibly actions are linguistically influenced. The lecture was designed to be cross-disciplinary and aimed at weighing up old and new research results. The topic is first de- scribed in its historical genesis and then discussed on the basis of empirically collected psychological, anthropological and social science data, but also on the basis of hermeneutically analyzed findings from literature. Historically, the question is based on the assumption that a language shapes or even determines the world experience of its speakers through its lexis and grammatical specificities. In this context, it was discussed whether different expressions of the same content can influence the addressees and thus manipulate them. It is shown that this can indeed be the case: Language can be very powerful in this regard. However, it also becomes clear that this is not valid indefinitely, since, conversely, material reality also has an impact on what we can and must express in and with our language(s). Totalitarian control through language can only happen for a short time, but is impossible in the long run.

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Sprache und Corona / Language and Corona

Oksana Havryliv, Uniwersytet Wiedeński (ORCID: 0000-0002-0156-3767)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-4 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 69–88

Słowa kluczowe: neologizmy dotyczące koronawirusa, agresja werbalna, przemoc werbalna, agresywne akty mowy, pejoratywy, sytuacje konfliktowe

This article is devoted to the socially relevant and highly current topic of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on language, as exemplified by German. The empirical basis is provided by news reports in German, especially from Austrian mass media. We explore the new vocabulary (including pejoratives) as well as the role of language in the crisis period, especially with regard to its expressive and emotive functions. In this context, we propose that verbal aggression, alongside its destructive functions (insulting, offending, humiliating), also fulfills a spectrum of positive functions. We present functions that the use of aggressive speech increasingly fulfills in this time of crisis, as well as new conflict situations and new target groups. The presence of emotive-expressive lexis became visible in COVID-19 discourse from the first days of the COVID-19 pandemic, because beyond the need to identify a new state of affairs, language activates its expressive and creative potential in times of crisis. This paper surveys the role of emotive-expressive lexis and verbal aggression in the new everyday life under Covid. The empirical material has been analyzed using the following methodological approaches: lexical- semantic, descriptive, and contextual analyses. The main goal of the paper is to explore the role of language in dealing with the pandemic and in shaping the new corona-related reality. Other goals and research tasks accompany this main objective: – Recording of corona neologisms, their functions and word formation models; – Exploring the role and functions of verbal aggression and emotive-expressive lexis in the pandemic period; – Exploring creative linguistic potentials (occasionalisms (nonce words), phraseologisms, parallel formations, puns) and verbalization of uncertainty or anxiety using humor.

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Emotionsausdrucksmittel auf der textuellen Ebene in ausgewählten polnischen Weblogeinträgen / Emotion expressing devices at a textual level in selected posts on a Polish blog

Mariusz Jakosz, Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach (ORCID: 0000-0001-9606-679X)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-5 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 89–105

Słowa kluczowe: blog, emocje, bloger, warstwa tekstowa, język płci

Blogs belong to a special computer communication genre combining a website with a discussion forum. Because posts are not moderated, which means that blogosphere users are free to say whatever they want, this form of communication is conducive to the spontaneous expression of emotions. In the article, the author carries out a qualitative analysis of the textual means of expressing emotions in selected posts from a Polish blog written by a heterosexual couple. The bloggers use the following stylistic devices: replacing constituent parts (substitution), adding linguistic elements (adjunction), leaving out syntactic units (elimination), and changing the order of syntactic units (permutation). The author tries to answer two questions: what linguistic devices and why those ones are used by women and men in blogs to express emotions. The analysis indicates that the array of linguistic devices used is quite diverse. Rethorical questions, swear words, anaphoras, and ironic similes can be found in posts written by representatives of both genders. The use of emphasis to enhance the expression of emotions is characteristic of the female blogger. In the male blogger’s posts, one can come across swear words, colloquialisms, and irony. An analysis of a greater number of posts written by various bloggers would make it possible to investigate more thoroughly the language of genders and the way women and men express themselves in internet discourse. An examination of the manner in which women and men communicate in the digital world what they feel may contribute to gaining a better understanding of their use of language and their style.

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Privat- und Werbeanzeigen in der „Krakauer Zeitung“ (1857–1866) / Private and Promotional Advertisements from the “Krakauer Zeitung” (1857–1866)

Robert Kołodziej, Uniwersytet Jagielloński (ORCID: 0000-0002-6128-1059)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-6 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 107–120

Słowa kluczowe: reklamy, starsze teksty, rodzaj tekstu, działania tekstowe

The article addresses the issue of advertisements in old newspaper texts. Specifically examined are classified private and promotional adverts from a German-language Cracow newspaper “Krakauer Zeitung”, published between 1857 and 1866. To date, few analyses of such texts have been carried out. Jörg Meier (2011) examined old German-language advertising texts published in German-language press of Central Europe, particularly in the Habsburg Monarchy. However, in his research he did not include Galicia. In his research, he considered both extra-textual (language-independent) and intra-textual (linguistic) factors. This article draws on and attempts to continue that research. The analysis takes into account the approach developed by Silvia Bendel (1998) used in the study of older advertising texts. In particular, it is concerned with text actions used in these texts, such as naming a particular product, indicating its price, giving the place of sale, etc. The text function model developed by Brinker (2001) was also taken into account. In addition, Janich’s (2013) model designed to study contemporary advertising texts was applied. The aim of this paper is to establish the features of the textual genre of “advertisement” in the analyzed texts from “Krakauer Zeitung” on the basis of the above-mentioned literature on the subject. It is specifically concerned with intra-textual factors. The study considers aspects such as textual actions, typographic elements, means of persuasion and argumentation. The study includes 20 texts which form a representative corpus. Almost all of the examined texts have a basic appellative function; however, in some of them an informative function was found. Almost all texts contain means of persuasion and argumentation that determine the appellative function. However, this function is not expressed exclusively in a linguistic way. Typographical means such as font type and size play an important role. In the analyzed texts, traces or individual instances of graphic/image elements, which complement or extend the advertising message contained in them, are used.

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Zur Erschließung von Kultur in literarischen Texten aus translationsrelevanter Sicht (am Beispiel der deutschen Übersetzung der Erzählung „Таку вже Бог долю судив“ von Mychajlyna Roschkewytsch) / On the Problem of Detection of Culture in Literary Texts from the Translation­ Relevant Perspective (on the Material of the German Translation of the story “The Destiny was in the hands of God” by Mikhailina Roshkevich)

Tetiana Liashenko, Lwowski Uniwersytet Narodowy im. Iwana Franki (ORCID: 0000-0001-9751-2173)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-7 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 121–131

Słowa kluczowe: pojęcie kultury, znaczenia kulturowe, tekst literacki, magakoncepcja integracyjna

The “cultural turn” in the translation studies makes it possible to consider translation as a culture transfer, as a means of intercultural communication. But what is meant by culture? How are the culture-specific actions, meanings, and worldviews represented in the texts? The questions still remain debatable. The paper is devoted to the problem of detection and interpretation of cultural meanings in the literary source text and their transference to the target text. Through the analysis of the existing conceptions, here we develop our own translational definition of the concept “culture” from the translation-relevant perspective. This enables the modeling of translators’ cultural background knowledge, so that they can understand cultural meanings in the original and reproduce them adequately in the translation. Within the cognitive-communicative approach, we define the literary text as an integrative mega-concept having a hierarchical structure of three layers: conceptual, image, and evaluative. The application of this methodology is illustrated on the material of a Ukrainian literary text and its German translation. On the basis of comparative analysis of the Ukrainian original and the German translation, we consider the examples of cultural asymmetries and discuss certain translation solutions for bridging cultural differences. Thus, cultural meanings can be revealed at all three layers of the integrative mega-concept of the literary text. At the conceptual layer, denotative meanings of explicit cultural elements in the text are analyzed. The image layer presupposes decoding of cognitive metaphors, which are the basis of linguistic images. At the evaluative layer, cultural meanings are identified through the analysis of implicit and explicit evaluation actions. The comparison of the integrative mega-concept of the source text and its reflection in the translation reveals most of the incongruities in the image layer as a result of a certain non-congruence in the worldviews of the Ukrainian and German linguocultural communities.

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Kontrastive Phraseologie des Fußballs. Ein korpuslinguistischer Zugang / Contrastive Phraseology of Football. A Corpus Linguistic Approach

Simon Meier-Vieracker, Uniwersytet Techniczny w Dreźnie (ORCID: 0000-0002-0141-9327)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-8 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 133–146

Słowa kluczowe: frazeologia, idiomatyka, porównanie języków, lingwistyka korpusowa, piłka nożna

Football coverage is considered a rich source for phraseological research. It primarily highlights the functionality of phraseological units within this domain. However, although this research is usually based on corpora, it mostly uses qualitative methods. In contrast, quantifying analyses in the narrow sense based on sufficiently large corpora are hardly available. This article therefore presents a method for the data-driven, i.e. purely quantitative-statistical survey of phrasemes in large corpora of football live text commentaries in six European languages (German, English, Dutch, French, Italian and Spanish). With this method, which is based on the determination of recurrent word pairs on the basis of statistical association measures, idiomatic expressions can be accurately identified, which can then be examined from a contrastive perspective. Parallels can be found both in the phraseological designation of typical game situations and in the set of available figurative components. In addition to some culture-specific peculiarities in the football phraseology of the analysed languages, a transculturally shared inventory of both source domains and phraseological units is revealed. However, these form a characteristic phraseological profile of the domain-specific language of football coverage within the respective languages. Thus, the presented method contributes to the contrastive research in the language of football as well as to the phraseologically relevant question of the cognitive and cultural aspects of cross-linguistically widespread idioms.

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Holenderskie elementy kulturowe w polskim przekładzie „De reünie” („Zjazd szkolny”) autorstwa Simone van der Vlugt. Analiza wybranych technik translatorskich / Dutch Culture-specific Items in the Polish Translation of „De reünie” by Simone van der Vlugt. Analysis of the Selected Translation Techniques

Małgorzata Zarzycka, Uniwersytet Wrocławski (ORCID: 0000-0001-6138-4210)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-9 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 147–164

Słowa kluczowe: specyfika kultury, techniki przekładu, klasyfikacja strategii i technik przekładu, problemy tłumaczeniowe

Culture-specific items cause many translation problems and therefore they often pose a huge challenge to translators. Thereupon this issue has been researched by many translation theorists. The subject matter of this article are culture-specific items (CSIs) in the Polish translation of the thriller “De reünie” by Simone van der Vlugt. The first reading of this translation calls readers’ attention to the fact that it is a text rich in cultural references. Thereupon the author of this article found worth analyzing how the translator has dealed with this challenge. Especially that this kind of research can be useful for other translators, as well as for translation theorists and reviewers of translations. The aim of this article is to analyze the use of translation techniques for CSIs and to inquire into the frequency with which the analyzed translation techniques have been applied. This is the first research of this kind concerning this novel. The theoretical part is dedicated to the issues associated with CSIs, namely the definitions of this term, translation problems caused by CSIs and classifications of translation strategies and techniques. The command of these issues is a starting point for the next phases of the research. The analysis was carried out using the classification of translation strategies and techniques described by Aixelá (1996). Due to the fact that proper nouns are numerous, the chosen classification was supplemented with one strategy from the classification of Hejwowski (2007), namely with the approved equivalent. The presented analysis is based upon the most representative examples of CSIs. The author of this article has suggested alternative translation solutions to some examples. The aim of it was not to criticize the translation choices made by the translator, but to shed light on other translation possibilities. The analysis has shown that there have been used 17 translation techniques and combinations of them in the Polish translation of the novel „De reünie”. The most common technique used by the translator, Dorota Szafrańska-Poniewierska, has been the repetition – 105 times. Other translation techniques and combinations of them have been applied significantly less often. On the basis of the observations has been stated that the most translation techniques and the combinations of them belong to the conservation, category proposed by Aixelá (1996) and are exotic. That means that the most Dutch culture-specific items and consequently also the couleur locale of the whole novel have been retained. Thereupon it can be as- sumed that the choices of the translator may lead to the foreignization (Venuti, 1995). However, these are tentative conclusions and in order to draw further conclusions the analysis of this text should be broadened with the research at the macrostructural level that could be an interesting amplification of this research.

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Wer gehört zur deutschen Minderheit? Zugehörigkeitsdefinitionen zwischen Minderheitenperspektive und nationaler Gesetzgebung / Who Belongs to the German minority? Definitions of Belonging Between a Minority Perspective and National Legislation

Sara Bonin, Uniwersytet Europejski Viadrina we Frankfurcie nad Odrą (ORCID: 0000-0001-9630-5092)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-10 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 167–177

Słowa kluczowe: Górny Śląsk, mniejszość niemiecka, przynależność, Membership Categorisation Analysis (MCA)

The article explores the differences between a legal definition of minorities and membership require- ments presented by possible members of the German minority. The issue is investigated through Membership Categorisation Analysis (MCA) of narrative interviews of people of German heritage from the Opole region (Upper Silesia, Poland). The analysis is followed by a comparison of the findings with the minority definition of the Polish Minority Act. The MCA of the statements made by the respondents shows that the characteristics and activities associated with members of the German minority are structured to varying degrees along the topics: membership in minority associations, age, language skills, reflection on the (unofficial) family history, nationality and regionality, as well as the individual decision to belong. Accordingly, the aspects of membership, the individual decision as well as the regional affiliation identified in the statements made by the respondents are added to the Minority Act definition. The original value of the article is threefold. Firstly, the article represents a change of perspective in researching the German minority by applying the concept of belonging. Instead of assuming a homogeneous identity of a person or group, belonging is perceived as heterogeneous (related to the collective) and multidimensional (related to the individual). Accordingly, the article analyses statements made by people of German heritage, instead of using an ethnic categorization prior to analysis. Secondly, MCA is applied from the perspective of belonging, thus making discrepancies, contradictions and overlaps of belonging visible. Thirdly, the results of the analysis are put into practice by comparing them with the definition in the Polish Minority Act. The presentation of the differences and similarities of the definitions of people of German heritage themselves, in comparison to the national legislation, provides important impulses for the adaptation of minority and language policy at the national, regional, and internal level of the minority organisations.

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Advertorial prasowy jako gatunek o polimorficznej naturze / Print Advertorial as a Genre of Polymorphic Nature

Sandra Camm, Uniwersytet Humanistyczno-Przyrodniczy im. Jana Długosza w Częstochowie (ORCID: 0000-0003-2582-1342)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-11 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 179–196

Słowa kluczowe: reklama, artykuł sponsorowany, analiza dyskursu, genologia

The article attempts to define the print advertorial in the perspective of the Polish theory of the genre and the French school of discourse analysis: to describe the genre signals that distinguish it from editorial content on the one hand and advertising content on the other, and to identify the relevant and idiosyncratic features of its prototypical core. It complements existing linguistic, media and press studies (Polish, European, American and Canadian), which – despite the dynamically growing importance of advertorial communication, becoming a dominant marketing tool in the magazine press – marginalise this phenomenon and do not devote much attention to it. The print advertorial is an advertising genre where messages are (as required by law) labelled, not listed, paginated or journalistically signed. They become genologically similar – to other press genres – and physically similar – to the editorial content around them – through the mechanisms of polymorphic mimesis. This strategy includes techniques of a greater or lesser degree of manipulation, such as nomenclature diversification, signature written in tiny print, low-visibility places and vertically, harmonisation of the topic and layout, genre adaptations as well as imitating the appearance of a typical newspaper article. A particularly interesting case is the mechanism of nomenclature diversification, which is completely overlooked in research. As it turns out, on the advertising market in Poland, there are 20 different signatures of the advertorial operating simultaneously, which – let me emphasise – are fully synonymous. These include terms such as: prezentacja partnera, promocja, materiał prasowy, materiał przygotowany przez + [brand name] (e.g., Material prepared by Optegra) or [brand name] + in + [magazine name] (e.g., Davines in Wysokie Obcasy Extra). Per analogiam, advertorials in French are covered by 12 different signatures (including publi-communiqué, publi-information, publi-story, publi-reportage, publi-évasion) and in English by three names (advertorial, special advertising section, promotion). The author presents the advertorial in its proper socio-cultural and historical context and carries out semiotic and discursive analyses of numerous examples from Polish, French and English magazine press from the years 2000–2021. That allows her to propose a broad definition of the print advertorial in question and, at the same time, to illustrate its complex, polymorphic nature.

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Kommunikative Muster in chinesischen universitären DaF-Unterrichtsgesprächen am Beispiel der Gesprächseröffnung / Communicative Patterns in Chinese University GFL Classroom Conversations Using the Example of Conversation Opening

Miaoxin Chen, Uniwersytet w Erfurcie (ORCID: 0000-0002-5229-750X)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-12 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 197–206

Słowa kluczowe: wzorce komunikacyjne, rozpoczęcie rozmowy, cechy strukturalne, chińskie uniwersyteckie rozmowy podczas zajęć z języka niemieckiego jako obcego

Conversation opening as one of the three most important phases of conversation is constructed interactively by participants. A lot of researches focus on it in various contexts, but there is no study of it in the setting of Chinese university GFL class. In this respect, this paper focuses on the analysis of conversation opening based on authentic recorded GFL classroom conversations from a Chinese university in order to approach the research desideratum described. Within the theoretical and methodological framework of the concept of communicative genres, this paper is dedicated to a detailed investigation of the conversation opening on the internal structure, situational realisation level and external structure in order to reconstruct the interactional processes between the teachers and learners in the opening sequences as well as to elaborate the structural features. On the basis of the data analysis, it can be stated that the interactants jointly negotiate and open the classroom conversations in a pattern-like form. Structurally, the communicative pattern of the conversation opening is essentially composed of the acoustic part, the greeting sequences and the transition to the middle of the conversation. In addition, the features of the conversation opening are still reflected at the three levels of analysis by the use of lexical means and the adjacency pairs as well as by the characteristics of the constellation of participants in the conversation. However, deviations from the sedimentations of the pattern (such as expanded or compressed conversation opening) are found in the data, as communicative patterns are not static and can always be updated in situ.

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Funktionen des Textdesigns in CD-Covers als multimodalen Texten / Functions of Text Design in CD Covers as Multimodal Texts

Monika Horodecka, Uniwersytet Wrocławski (ORCID: 0000-0002-8425-3616)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-13 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 207–216

Słowa kluczowe: design tekstu, multimodalność, lingwistyka mediów, okładka płyty CD

The broad significance of multimodality in media linguistics enables audio CD covers to be identified as multimodal texts. By activating different semiotic modes, multimodal text is perceived with multiple senses. This type of impact on the recipient’s senses enables the creation of a strong (positive or negative) influencing message. In order for a multimodal message to be rated as attractive and acceptable, it must first correspond to the superficial, i.e., formal-visual expectations of potential recipients or surprise them in terms of their expectations. The article presents the analysis of the functions of text design and their role in the reception of a multimodal text. The article focuses on the multimodal analysis of the CD cover (album “Peace Sells ... But Who’s Buying?” by Megadeth). The analysis is divided into two phases in which two types of text design functions are presented - text-oriented and reception- oriented functions. Text-oriented functions are characterized as epistemic, synoptic, recontextualizing, emulative and indicative. Reception-oriented functions are described as aesthetic, connotative, expres- sive, motivational and social. The results of the analysis show that many functions of text design are implemented on a small text area. Noticeable are also formal connections between the linguistic and visual parts of the text. Connections are used to cohesively convey the message on the covers of audio CDs and to achieve the persuasive goal of encouraging the recipient to buy the offered music album.

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Teaching Foreign Languages to the Deaf in Poland / Teaching Foreign Languages to the Deaf in Poland

Krystian Kamiński, Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej (ORCID: 0000-0001-6826-8052)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-14 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 217–226

Słowa kluczowe: edukacja osób niesłyszących, nauczanie języków obcych dla osób niesłyszących, polski system edukacyjny

Inclusive teaching is strongly emphasised nowadays in European regulations and documents. Educa- tors, teachers, scholars and policy makers are struggling to make education accessible to the widest possible group of learners. One of such groups are the d/Deaf – teaching them foreign languages is still an area that has not been fully explored. Although it is undoubtful that the d/Deaf require adjustments in teaching techniques and content, some researchers claim that there is no special method that could be applied to teaching this group of learners. The article presents the characteristics of teaching foreign languages to the d/Deaf. This theory is combined with the results of a study conducted on a group of foreign language teachers (of English and Polish) working with d/Deaf learners, showing how they manage to teach this peculiar group of students. The data gathered in a form of online interviews and reported in the paper shed light on how teachers approach this particular group of FL learners. The article presents conclusions regarding the conditions and formal regulations of the Polish education system. They concern possible changes in the educational programme and the teacher training sys- tem. Additionally, the paper presents a wide range of practical suggestions regarding teaching foreign languages to the d/Deaf.

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Multimodalność w przekładzie komiksu. Na przykładzie polskich tłumaczeń wybranych scen z serii „Thorgal” Grzegorza Rosińskiego i Jeana Van Hamme’a / Multimodality in Comic Translation. On the Example of Polish Translations of Selected Scenes from the “Thorgal” Series by Grzegorz Rosiński and Jean Van Hamme

Kasjana Kowalska, Uniwersytet Wrocławski (ORCID: 0000-0003-2785-1481)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-15 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 227–236

Słowa kluczowe: multimodalność, przekład komiksów, kombinacje słowa i obrazu

Nowadays, multimodal messages, i.e. messages that combine several semiotic codes, play an increasingly important role in communication. This paper attempts to answer the following questions: how changes made by translators and publishers in the comic book translation process can change the word-image relationship and what impact on the global sense and reception of a multimodal message can such modifications have? The analysis was based on two selected volumes of “Thorgal” comic book series by Jean Van Hamme and Grzegorz Rosiński, and two Polish translations of each of the selected volumes provided by different translators. The word-image combinations classification in the comic proposed by Scott McCloud was used for the study. The analysis has shown that the introduction of changes in word-picture relations in a comic may lead to a change in the global sense of the scenes – in some of the analyzed cases, the modifications led to a decrease in the action’s and characters’ dynamics and in the intensity of emotions felt by the characters, in others – to a stronger emphasis on certain elements of the scenes. The findings broaden the knowledge about the specificity of translating comics as a multi- modal message, in which the verbal and visual elements do not function autonomously, but are linked by a complex network of relations. They also emphasize the role of the translator of such messages as a person who must not only easily navigate in the linguistic space – he/she must also be aware of the aforementioned connections and be able to analyze the impact of individual semiotic codes on each other and – ultimately – on the global meaning of the message.

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Udział kultury w procesie ewolucji i kształtowania się języka / The Contribution of Culture in the Process of Language Evolution and Language Formation

Maria Lewandowska, Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu (ORCID: 0000-0003-4679-2747)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-16 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 237–247

Słowa kluczowe: ewolucja języka, kulturowe pochodzenie języka, biologiczna i kulturowa koewolucja

The aim of the following paper is to discuss and analyse the investigations and scientific research on the process of language formation, as well as to show that the course of this was regulated not only by bio- logical and cognitive structures but also by the cultural context that accompanied it. The main premise of the work is the thesis that language is a broad, multifaceted phenomenon, which was developed in response to the human need for communication, which later influenced language development. Article deals with the genesis and evolution of language from the perspective of the socio-cultural context that could accompany both phenomena. The hypothesis of the biological and cultural co-evolution of Peter J. Richerson and Robert Boyd is discussed, as well as the findings of Daniel L. Everett concerning the origins of language and its original character. Work aims to prove that culture and nature should not be treated as an opposition, but as two equally material factors, that affect one another. It also attempts to determine whether culture can influence grammatical structures. The premise for adopting such a thesis is the grammar of the Pirahã people language, which does not meet the postulate of Hauser, Chomsky, and Fitch that all languages are recursive, which in turn may undermine the thesis about the universal, biological basis of grammatical structures. Therefore, it can be treated as an inducement to reassess the way, both philosophy and linguistics, perceive the nature of language.

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Kunst und Künstliche Intelligenz (KI) – Zu den Möglichkeiten einer kognitiv-orientierten Diskursanalyse / AI and Art – The Potential of a Cognitive-Oriented Discourse Analysis

Ramona Teresa Plitt, Uniwersytet Techniczny w Dreźnie (ORCID: 0000-0002-1225-3721)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-17 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 249–259

Słowa kluczowe: kognitywna analiza dyskursu, sztuczna inteligencja, sztuka, semantyka ram

In the past five to ten years, artificial intelligence (AI) technologies have made a noticeable contribution to art. Literature, music and painting are among the fields that are most influenced by algorithmic applications and (humanoid) robot systems. On the surface, the discourse accompanying these developments has a polarizing touch being typical for innovation debates. With this in mind, the question arises as to which subtle aspects of meaning structure the discourse on art and AI. Discrete aspects of meaning may be indicators of changes going on in the field of art. This study shows how a cognitively oriented linguistic discourse analysis can contribute to the examination of a currently relevant field of discourse, as well as to the identification of frames that shape this discourse. The aim of this article is to use an exploratory approach to outline the concept of ‘creative’, respectively ‘creating’ and to determine potential shifts in meaning. Frame semantics and FrameNet serve as the theoretical and analytical framework. Based on a 230,655-token large and thematically relevant corpus, the realized semantic roles of the verb ‘create’, respectively the CREATE frame are determined and quantitatively evaluated. By comparing the number of the concrete realizations of roles against the data obtained from a reference corpus, it is possible to identify discourse-specific aspects of meaning in the art/ AI discourse. The analysis shows that the biggest differences between the focus and reference corpus concern the realization of the frame elements INSTRUMENT and PURPOSE. Whereas the INSTRU- MENT role is more often explicated in the focus corpus than in the reference corpus, the opposite effect applies to the PURPOSE role. The unmentioned purpose (role) in the examined focus data can indicate a certain novel character of AI-generated art. The results of the analysis of the INSTRUMENT role in the focus corpus, on the other hand, indicate that the instrument or tool – which is often used to refer to AI - represents an important aspect of meaning in the artistic process of creation. With the help of the theoretical and analytical instruments of cognitive discourse analysis, this contribution detects the non-obvious semantic fixations and changes in the current conceptualization of the art/ AI interface.

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Deutsche Sprachinseln in der Slowakei mit Fokus auf das Hauerland – Vergangenheit, Gegenwart und Zukunft / German Language Islands in Slovakia with a Focus on the Hauerland – The Past, Present and Future

William Richter, Uniwersytet Masaryka (ORCID: 0000-0003-0217-818X)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-18 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 261–270

Słowa kluczowe: wyspa językowa, Słowacja, dialekt, Hauerland

The following article focuses on German language islands in Slovakia. These areas have been inhab- ited and influenced by Germans for centuries. In this case, special attention is paid to one specific area - the Hauerland. This language island in the middle of Slovakia exists today only rudimentarily. The main aim of this article is to describe the historical evolution of the aforementioned islands of Slovakia, the origin of their dialects and their characteristics. The focus will be on the village of Ma- linová (Zeche) and its dialect, which is part of a more extensive research. The aim of further research is to describe the morphological level of this dialect, which has not yet been done. At the first sight, there are some major shifts not only on the morphological level, but also on the syntactic one. In this context, reference can be made to the grammatical mood, especially the subjunctive and its forms, which could be considered quite unusual. The Slovak language, which has been the main contact language for the Zeche dialect, has influenced it severely, not only on the two mentioned levels of grammar, but also in its lexicon. The linguistic analysis has been based on a series of free interviews, that were recorded specially for this purpose with the oldest living speakers of the Zeche dialect. These transcribed interviews form the main corpus, which serves as a database for further linguistic analyses. The dialects of Hauerland are threatened by extinction as the number of their speakers is constantly declining. This research of the Zeche dialect should help to ensure that the knowledge of the structures of these dialects is preserved within German dialectology.

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Das Erleben der Langeweile und der Aktivierungsprozess der Kinder im frühschulischen DaF-Unterricht / The experience of boredom and the activation process of children in GFL lessons in early school

Louise van Wijgerden, Uniwersytet Szczeciński (ORCID: 0000-0001-9098-0716)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-19 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 271–280

Słowa kluczowe: Niemiecki jako język obcy, nuda, metody aktywizujące, środki nauczania

Curiosity and thirst for knowledge are characteristic features of children, which manifest themselves in the fact that an infinite number of questions are asked. As soon as children go to school there is often a change in their behavior - they become passive and show a lack of interest. It is believed that boring lessons that are not tailored to the age-specific needs of students may be the reason for these changes. It can therefore be assumed that activating students during lessons is of paramount importance. In the research literature on boredom in foreign language teaching, studies on English as a Foreign Language predominate, which is why it is important to expand these studies to other languages, including Ger- man as a Foreign Language. Furthermore, the authors focus on the older students and disregard early language acquisition. The following article presents the results of the research carried out as part of my master’s thesis. The question of which activating methods and teaching aids are suitable for early school German lessons and whether the teachers use them frequently is discussed in more detail. In order to be able to answer these questions, a survey was carried out among German teachers who teach classes I-III in Poland. The questionnaire consisted of both closed and open questions. The data obtained show that it is important to avoid frontal teaching. It was also pointed out that in Polish school and system conditions, action song and movement games are the best methods for combating boredom. In order to design active German lessons, it is also important to differentiate between teaching aids. Songs, pictures and real objects seem to activate children the most. The knowledge gained could be used as a suggestion for German teachers who want to conduct lessons without boredom.

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Darstellung der alpinen Landschaft in Outdoorberichten / Presentation of the Alpine Landscape in Outdoor Reports

Anna Woronina, Moskiewski Państwowy Uniwersytet Lingwistyczny (ORCID: 0000-0002-7119-9016)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-20 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 281–290

Słowa kluczowe: rodzaj tekstu, sprawozdanie zewnętrzne, przestrzeń, krajobraz alpejski

The outdoor report is a popular but no so deeply covered text type of journalistic style as well as of internet-based communication. Outdoor reports represent a hybrid genre that pursues the broad goal of making hiking as attractive as possible for the general public. As a hybrid text type, they deserve a special linguo-stylistic approach, because of their factual objectivity on the one hand and author- related aesthetic subjectivity on the other hand. Furthermore, these texts often have an interdiscursive or intermedial character. In this article, we will discuss the basics of text type theory and spatial theory based on W. Albert, Peter J. Brenner, Ju. Lotman, D. S. Likhatchov. This establishes the theoretical base- line of the following research. The research focuses on the characteristics of the geographically defined space of the Alpine region as well as text-forming spatial-related characteristics of the text type outdoor report. The aim is to show on the concrete contexts, how in outdoor reports the linguo-stylistic means of objective as well as subjective representation are used by the author to increase expressiveness and impact on the recipient. This is the original value of the analysis. This carried out analysis addresses the matter of classifying and interpretation methods, as well as basic principles of geopoetics approaches. In the process of analysis is inter alia elucidated, that the outdoor report of NZZ-column coevally exhibits particular poetic intentions and implicates using figures of speech as well as other connotative words and constructions. By means of the analysis, it is shown that various linguo-stylistic devices are used for creation of the Alpine space such as toponymes of different types, factual and expressive epithets, comparisons, which acts as text productive. The essential part is the representation of the charms of the Alpine landscape, which is reflected in symbolic subtext. As the analytic material consists of five outdoor reports from the Neue Zürcher Zeitung – from the section „Hiking in the Alps“ by Heinz Staffelbach from 2020.

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English Native Speakers’ Pronunciation of Selected Polish Consonant Clusters / English Native Speakers’ Pronunciation of Selected Polish Consonant Clusters

Alicja Derych, Uniwersytet Wrocławski (ORCID: 0000-0002-8819-2080)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-21 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 293–308

Słowa kluczowe: sekwencje spółgłoskowe, fonetyka języka polskiego, polski jako język obcy

The present paper is concerned with articulation of selected Polish consonant clusters by native speakers of English and is situated within the scope of Polish phonetics. The analyses that became the basis of this paper were conducted for the purpose of the master’s thesis. They originated from the emerging need of researching the notions of phonetics in the context of teaching Polish as a foreign language. The aim of the study was to determine which consonant clusters present in the research material are pronounced inconsistently with the norm. Those investigations were accompanied with an attempt of detecting some typical phenomena appearing in English native speakers’ articulation of Polish consonant clusters and some causes of such realisations among the selected respondents. The mentioned claims were accomplished. In her investigations the author took into consideration also language biography (e.g. other languages spoken by the students), the ability to differentiate Polish sounds (individual and geminate sounds) and the notion of transfer (also phonetic interference) related to various differences between the composition of consonant clusters in Polish and English. The qualitative analysis was based mainly on the transcription of the recordings of the students’ performances (readings of the prepared text) and the author’s subjective auditory impressions. In order to examine sound perception, Kwiatkowska’s test (2015) was applied. Based on the analysis of the performances of five speakers the author determined which Polish consonants appeared as most difficult to differentiate and which clusters turned out to be the most problematic to pronounce. It was determined that incorrect articulation concerned both consonant clusters inside words (word-initial, word-medial, word-final) and across word boundaries, especially modifications of the place of articulation, mistakes in voicing and devoicing were noticed, also simplifications of clusters (vowel insertions or consonant deletions). Moreover, a number of mistakes concerned incorrect pronunciation of the sounds: [ʃ̺], [ʒ̺], [t̺͡ʃ̺], [d̺͡ʒ̺] and [ɕ], [ʑ], [t͡ɕ], [d͡ʑ]. The conclusions of the analyses may help in formulation of some adequate pronunciation exercises addressed to the native speakers of English studying Polish as a second language (some exemplary ones, not included in the present paper, were proposed by the author in her other publication, see Derych 2021).

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Exploring the Preferences of Polish EFL Teachers towards the Accents of English / Exploring the Preferences of Polish EFL Teachers towards the Accents of English

Barbara Grobelna, Uniwersytet Gdański (ORCID: 0000-0001-5042-6948)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-22 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 309–318

Słowa kluczowe: EFL, angielskie akcenty, badania postaw językowych

This language attitudes study investigates the preferences of EFL (English as a foreign language) teachers from Poland towards the accents of English they speak and teach. Despite the substantial amount of re- search on EFL learners, little has been done to investigate the impact of preferences of Polish teachers for different variations of English language on their students’ language learning. This study’s aim is to bridge this gap and provide the analysis of data gathered from 102 English teachers from Poland in March 2020. The first part of the study focused on the abilities of the teachers themselves, while the second part covered the attitudes towards the students’ choices regarding the accents of English. The results show that among this particular group of Polish EFL teachers, American English accent is the easiest one to recognise and Filipino English the most difficult one to recognise. RP and General American accents prevail to be the most popular ones and there is a strong tendency to speak with these two particular accents, in favour to RP one. The findings are that Polish EFL teachers consider their own accents significant. The majority of the participants is satisfied with their own accents, but they still see the room for improvement, and they do not stop developing and upgrading their accent abilities and skills. When it comes to the attitudes towards the pronunciation of their students, Polish EFL teachers do not have any particular preferences considering the accents of their students or pupils. They let them freely choose the accent, and do not impose on them the model of pronunciation the teachers enjoy the most or the one they were taught to.

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Phonetische Merkmale einer hörerorientierten Sprechweise und ihre Vermittlung im DaF-Unterricht / Some Thoughts on the Awareness of Pronunciation in the Context of Foreign Language Teaching

Beata Grzeszczakowska-Pawlikowska, Uniwersytet Łódzki (ORCID: 0000-0003-2252-5038)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-23 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 319–329

Słowa kluczowe: orientacja na słuchacza, cechy fonetyczne, sposób mówienia, nauczanie języka niemieckiego jako obcego

The virtual dialogicity of spoken rhetoric infers the concept of speech as the virtual-dialogic intention of the speaker to make themselves understood. This brings into focus the relevance of listener orientation. In speech-as-virtual-dialogue, just as in a conversation, the speaker must approach the questions and the position of the listener in a purposeful manner. The question-answer pattern basic to the shaping of speech is particularly valid in cases in which speaking to others is considered as a cooperative, rather than a competitive, practice. Listener orientation is certainly a complex category in rhetoric – ideally, perspective taking begins in the conceptional phase of speaking (in the areas of thinking logic, argumentation and language) and is then expressed on the level of performance, for example in a listener- focused presentation. In rhetorical practice the category of listener orientation is often adopted as a category for the evaluation or observation of spoken performance. This paper aims to highlight specific phonetic characteristics of a listener-oriented mode of speech in German as a foreign language. It will then outline some concrete didactic consequences, which have important implications for the teach- ing of German. Proceeding from the basic dialogic understanding of social interaction, the complex category of listener orientation deserves particular attention in the training of rhetorical competence in a foreign language. From a methodological perspective, the helpful interweaving of phonetics and rhetoric should be noted. After all, when speaking, lecturing and presenting the most important thing is the achievement of desired effects and, hence, of communicational intentions.

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Ausspracheübungen für deutsche Polnischlernende – eine Lehrwerkanalyse / Pronunciation Exercises for Germans Learning Polish – a Teaching Material Analysis

Anne-Marie Otto, Uniwersytet Marcina Lutra w Halle i Wittenberdze (ORCID: 0000-0003-4832-6571)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-24 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 331–354

Słowa kluczowe: analiza materiałów dydaktycznych, ćwiczenia fonetyczne, wymowa, język polski jako obcy

Standardized pronunciation is of great importance for foreign language acquisition. Phonetic skills are necessary for developing reading, writing, speaking and listening skills as well as for the entire language acquisition. Also, major pronunciation deviations can cause disruptions in communication. Therefore, it is important that pronunciation teaching and training is well integrated into foreign language teaching. Phonetic exercises in the textbooks are fundamental for this. Despite the fact that in recent years there has been an improvement of phonetic exercises in the teaching materials, still too little attention is paid to phonetics in the classroom. Using the method of teaching material analysis, the following article analyzes the phonetic practice material in three selected textbooks (+ workbooks and extra material) for Polish as a foreign language: „Hurra!!! Po Polsku“, „Polski, krok po kroku“ und „Witaj Polsko!”. German is assumed to be the learners’ source language. The results of a teaching material analysis can be used to make recommendations for teachers, e.g. which textbooks are recommendable concerning phonetic exercises or give advice how to work effectively with the given material. Among others it is important to fully exploit the potential of the phonetic exercises, to extend exercises if necessary, or to create one’s own additional material if the textbook used in class does not provide sufficient material. Using teaching material analysis, the three textbooks will be compared with each other regarding quantity, quality and selection of the phenomena. The single exercises will be classified using an exercise typology. The results of the analysis and the final comparison show that the phonetic exercise material still can be improved regarding quantity and quality. Overall, “Hurra!!! Po Polsku” already has many well-made pronunciation exercises. The phonetic exercises are well integrated and perform better in most points compared to the other two analyzed textbooks (+ workbooks and extra material).

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Roland Kehreins Ansichten in „Prosodie und Emotionen“ und ihre Anwendung im DaF Unterricht / Roland Kehreins Views on “Prosodie und Emotionen” and their Application in GFL Lessons

Anna Radzik, Uniwersytet Jagielloński (ORCID: 0000-0001-6360-3042)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-25 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 355–364

Słowa kluczowe: prozodia, badania emocji, jednostki prozodyczne

In coursebooks on German phonetics and phonology the role of prosodic units in the representation of emotional states is presented insufficiently. The monograph “Prosodie und Emotionen” by Roland Kehrein (2002) can be used in GFL lessons as a basis for the analysis and recognition of prosodic phenomena with regard to expression of emotions. This interdisciplinary investigation in the intersection of emotion psychology and prosody gives students the opportunity to familiarize with relevant aspects from both areas. The article presents selected aspects important for the GFL teaching. In the field of emotion research, students get acquainted with emotions as three-sided phenomena (feeling/experience, neuro-psychological reactions, motor-expressive behavior). Furthermore, two approaches to the classification of emotions are analyzed: the categorical and the dimensional use. For the description of emotional utterances dimensional emotion analysis is of great importance. Accordingly, three dimensions – valence, activation and dominance – and the quality: ‘(non-) expectability’ are taken into account. From the field of prosody, students learn the systematic prosody model of German developed by Kehrein, in which the prosodic units with primarily linguistically relevant (syntactic, information-structuring and communication-organizing) functions are described. This model is compared with the classifications presented in traditional prosody research (Trubetzkoy, von Essen). Prosodic units with primarily emotional meanings can be analyzed on that basis. Applying the identified emotion-relevant prosodic units by Kehrein can contribute to the reproduction of emotional qualities as well as to the correct decoding of emotionally charged speech acts in foreign language teaching. Since there are no prosodic patterns for individual emotions, components of meaning are to be analyzed in order to enable casual speech behavior and the reproduction of emotions.

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Vokale im Kiezdeutschen: Eine phonetische Analyse der Vokalquantität und -qualität / Vowels in Kiezdeutsch: A Phonetic Analysis of Vowel Quantity and Quality

Susanne Rummel, Uniwersytet Poczdamski (ORCID: 0000-0002-3698-4449)
Katharina Nimz, Uniwersytet Osnabrück (ORCID: 0000-0002-6100-2881 )
Stefanie Jannedy, Centrum Językoznawstwa Ogólnego im. Leibniza (ORCID: 0000-0001-5449-3312)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-26 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 365–385

Słowa kluczowe: Kiezdeutsch, multietnolekt, napięcie samogłosek, długość samogłosek, fonetyka, język niemiecki

Kiezdeutsch is a variety of German which emerged in in multi-ethnic and multilingual urban neighbourhoods (Wiese 2009: 782). This German multiethnolect shows specific morphosyntactic alternations in comparison to Standard German, for example the usage of bare noun phrases for definite local expressions (Wiese/Pohle 2016) or pragmatically supported light verb constructions (Wiese 2006, 2009). Furthermore, there are a multitude of studies examining the variability on the grammatical level and the ethnographic circumstances of its development (vgl. Kallmeyer/Keim 2003a, 2003b; Dirim/Auer 2004; Keim 2004, 2008; Keim/Knöbl 2007, Paul et al. 2010; Freywald et al. 2011; Hinrichs 2013). However, there is still a lack of systematic investigation into the phonetics of Kiezdeutsch, with the exception of studies by Jannedy/Weirich (2013, 2014a, 2014b, 2014c, 2017, 2019, 2020) who investigated the acoustics of [ç] and [ɔʏ] in the Berlin-German multi-ethnolect. In the present study, we continue this line of research and look at vowel quality and quantity in Kiezdeutsch in comparison to a Standard German variety. Specially, we set out to test hypotheses which were based on auditory analyses alone(i. e., Auer, 2003; Tekin & Colliander, 2010). These hypotheses include that long vowels in Kiezdeutsch are produced shorter as well as more centralized than vowels in Standard German. We tested these hypotheses by means of acoustically and statistically analysed interview data from a group of male speakers for the vowels [iː], [eː] and [aː]. With regards to vowel quality, we did not find any significant differences between the Kiezdeutsch and the Standard German vowels, even though the vowels [e:] and [a:] were produced slightly further back in Kiezdeutsch. Regarding vowel quantity, we did find significant differences between the groups, in that all Kiezdeutsch vowels were on average produced shorter than the vowels produced by Standard German speakers. It therefore seems that quantity plays a more prominent role than quality when it comes to differences between Kiezdeutsch and Standard German vowels.

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Unterricht und Lernen von Geräuschen einer Fremdsprache: Schülerperspektive / Teaching and Learning Foreign Language Sounds: Students’ Perspective

Katarzyna Zalisz, Uniwersytet Wrocławski (ORCID: 0000-0002-1560-0995)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-27 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 387–400

Słowa kluczowe: wymowa, koncepcje przyswajania i nauczania wymowy, percepcja dźwięków języka obcego, glottodydaktyka, fonodydaktyka

The following article presents the results of a questionnaire study regarding Polish students’ perceptions of English sounds learning and teaching. In the first part of the article, the theoretical background is delineated. The most crucial definitions of attitudes and beliefs in the context of foreign language learning and teaching are also provided in the introductory section. The article discusses the role of pronunciation training in the foreign language classroom. Namely, what goals and priorities of phonetics should be incorporated in language teaching. The main objective is to present the attitudes towards teaching and learning foreign language sounds from the students’ perspective. The findings provide essential insight into the notion of self-reflection, and its impact on the overall language attainment process. Students’ reflective thoughts on their education experience appears to be highly significant, especially in the current situation of distance and remote learning. Teenage learners, mindful of the communication skills priority, seem to represent positive attitudes towards phonetics training in the classroom. The participants acknowledge not only the necessity of proper foreign sounds imitation in communicative situations, but also the equal status that pronunciation has among all the other language elements taught at schools such as grammar or vocabulary. The study also intend to explore learners’ beliefs about the sufficient level of pronunciation proficiency (comfortable intelligibility vs. native-like pronunciation), as well as preferred phonetic models and favored sound practice techniques. Researching attitudes and beliefs (of both learners and teachers) is contributory to understanding individual differences and educational needs of learners, as well as it is necessary for discerning and establishing appropriate teaching goals and priorities; not only in terms of sounds training, but also in the overall foreign language attainment process.

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Linguistikforschung heute – relevante und aktuelle Themen in der Forschung / Linguistic Research Today – Relevant and Current Topics in Research

Monika Czaja, Uniwersytet Wrocławski (ORCID: 0000-0002-5412-9649)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-28 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 403–406

Słowa kluczowe: analiza dyskursu, badania stereotypów, edukacja językowa, pejoryzacja

The current linguistic research discusses, contrary to some accusations, socially and scientifically relevant topics. In doing so, it shows great flexibility, because linguistic ways to approach new areas are being constantly researched. The goal of the contribution is to present the contents of the anthology ,,Sprache und Gesellschaft – Theoretische und empirische Kontexte der Linguistik‘‘. The therein contained contributions have been organized into five areas by topic, which go into detail on selected aspects of the interrelation between language and society. In the first part the authors discuss what society and the groups within it are saying about language, what language says about them and, in selected aspects, the forms of that interaction are presented in more detail. Going forward the question is being asked, who should be in charge of language education. The protestant religion classes are being presented as an example of language education outside of scientific settings. Religious terms which are reaching beyond culture can be a tool of communication to teach new languages to migrants.The topic of the third area revolves around the origin of stereotypes. The main stress is being put on historical events and their misinterpretations, which are quite prevalent.Internet texts and comments are the main source of information on negative descriptions of some groups of people, as discussed in the fourth part. The therein contained contributions focus on the reasoning behind and forms of sexism towards women and hatred towards migrants.The fifth and last area shows case studies of language aspects in social contexts. Internet comments regarding a doctor's visit, vulgarisms at polish universities and the special asymmetry in legal advice can all be impulses for broader studies on these and related topics and phenomena.This publication shows an interdisciplinary approach to research. This way the examination of language within a context can be especially well presented.

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Wstęp do fonetyki i fonologii języka szwedzkiego nareszcie w języku polskim / Introduction to the Swedish phonetics and phonology at last in Polish

Józef Jarosz, Uniwersytet Wrocławski (ORCID: 0000-0002-7820-667X)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-29 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 407–414

Słowa kluczowe: fonetyka, fonologia, język szwedzki, wymowa, transkrypcja fonetyczna, podręcznik akademicki

The first publication of an academic textbook has always been an important event for teachers at universities for two reasons. Every new title is a help in the case of a lack of textbooks, and a well-designed and solidly edited didactic aid – as didactic practice shows – can serve well for many generations for decades. This article discusses the first Polish textbook on Swedish phonetics and phonology with regard to its content and the methodological solutions used. The results of the analysis can be helpful for anyone interested in making a purchase decision. The criteria of analysis include the following aspects in the field of philological competence: 1) selection and scope of the problem, which should provide a theoretical orientation in the questions of general and Swedish phonetics and phonology; 2) the typology and objective of the exercises, which should help to achieve certain skills in the field of pronunciation and phonetic transcription; 3) content components that enable the acquisition of social skills; 4) Didactic strategies and forms of teaching the linguistic knowledge and skills for students in the first year of study. In the discussion, the advantages of the book were emphasized and the deficiencies found were commented on so that teachers can easily compensate for them. Despite some weaknesses, the book represents an optimal combination of the analyzed characteristics and can be used as a useful textbook in academic didactic practice. The textbook is especially recommended to all students of Scandinavian and Neophilological Studies.

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Projektowy i integrujący charakter lingwistyki dyskursu / The Designing and Integrating Nature of Discourse Linguistics

Marcelina Kałasznik, Uniwersytet Wrocławski (ORCID: 0000-0003-2713-5880)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-30 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 415–422

Słowa kluczowe: dyskurs, lingwistyka dyskursu, lingwistyka

Discourse is a term that is used increasingly both in everyday language and in the terminology ofvarious scientific disciplines. In everyday use it is usually a synonym for conversation or discussionon a topic, in one place or among representatives of a group. The meaning of the term discourse in scientific usage is much more complicated, especially since discourse is an analytical category of different sciences (e.g. sociology, linguistics, literary studies, anthropology, etc.) and its understanding varies depending on the respective discipline. Also within a discipline such as linguistics, which is the focus of the considerations, there are many ways of looking at the discourse. The focus of this article is the monograph by Czachur, published in 2020, which aims to develop discourse linguistics as a research program that has an integrative character. In his remarks, Czachur concentrates on showing how linguistics has prepared itself for the category of discourse by focusing on selected linguists and language philosophers and presenting their language models as well as discussing the achievements of structuralism and the process of overcoming it. Against this background, the discourse is presented as an object of research. In this context, Michel Foucault‘s assumptions are discussed. The author also presents selected approaches to discourse analysis (including those by Jäger, Witosz, Spitzmüller / Warnke and Piekot) and shows what the researchers aimed at with their concepts and how they interpret the discourse for their own research goals. This is followed by the idea of discourse linguistics as an integrating research program. Theoretical and methodological assumptions are reflected upon and a case study is presented in which the research procedure is used. The monograph brings new and interesting insights and represents a new, methodologically and theoretically well-founded program of discourse linguistics.

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Sprachwissenschaftliche Forschung in Polen und Deutschland nach der Wende / Linguistic Studies in Poland and Germany after the Fall of the Berlin Wall

Agnieszka Mac, Uniwersytet Rzeszowski (ORCID: 0000-0002-2670-6656)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-31 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 423–430

Słowa kluczowe: germanistyka, badania językoznawcze w Polsce, tradycje badawcze, aktualne i przyszłe obszary badawcze

The article outlines the current situation of German studies and in particular the development of linguistic research in Poland over the past 30 years. Referring to the basis of several studies from an anthology to be introduced, both research traditions and current fields of investigation are considered and reflections for future inquiries are made. The papers address various aspects of linguistic research on the basis of diverse text types. Argumentative action and the means of textual exposition in German and Polish political speeches are examined. Bilingual communication discourses in press texts and the typographical design of the text type congratulations are analysed in German-Polish comparison. One study deals with the results of German linguistics for DaF didactics in Poland, while two others are concerned about grammatical questions: the first with the modal verb sollen in reportative function in interrogative sentences, the second takes a close look at Polish and German phrases with temporal meaning in procedural law in order to uncover essential interlingual differences which may cause translational problems and errors. Two articles give an overview of the development and present the current state of research in the field of contrastive linguistics and linguistic discourse research in Polish and German studies in Poland. Another two contributions have historical references. One concerns the German language use by Volga Germans in the 1920s and 1930s. The other examines how the claim of language history as text type history, formulated in the 1970s and 1980s, was implemented within the German and Polish research community. The range of topics is supplemented by linguistic treatises from three neighbouring countries – Germany, Slovakia and Ukraine. At last but by no means of less interest, the self-biographies of two renowned German scholars and at the same time linguists, namely Prof. Ulla Fix and Prof. Hans-Werner Eroms, also deserve special attention.

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Forschungsmöglichkeiten im Bereich der juristischen Phraseologie / Research Opportunities in the Field of Legal Phraseology

Joanna Szczęk, Uniwersytet Wrocławski (ORCID: 0000-0001-8721-6661)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-32 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 431–435

Słowa kluczowe: język prawa, język specjalistyczny, frazeologizmy języka prawa, frazeologia prawa

The occurrence and use of phraseologisms in technical languages is often the subject of scientific research. One analyzes phraseologisms whose use is typical for the respective language or diagnoses their use in technical texts. This also applies to the use of the so-called legal phraseologisms in legal technical language and their occurrence in legal technical texts. In phraseology research, the focus has so far been on the terminological aspects and the delimitation of legal phraseologisms from the other phraseological units. In Małgorzata Płomińska’s monograph “Juristische Fachphraseologie – zwischen Konvention und Routine”, published in 2019 by Peter Lang Verlag, one finds an exemplary connection between theory and practice. The author analyzes the occurrence and functions of legal phraseologisms in the German and Polish law books and creates a very successful analysis model. The research results achieved by Płomińska are the subject of the contribution. At the same time, the current state of research on legal linguistic specialist phraseology is discussed. The characteristics of the analysis results also make it possible to display certain desiderata in this research area. a lack of complex research into legal phraseology for both German and Polish, as well as of a comparative character.

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Abschlussbericht über die Realisierung des Erasmus+-Projekts Internationalisierung und Weiterentwicklung des Doktorandenstudiums, Oktober 2018–Juni 2021 /

Anna Gondek, Uniwersytet Wrocławski (ORCID: 0000-0001-6106-4479)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-33 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 439–443

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Bericht über das 3. Internationale Doktorandenseminar im Rahmen des Erasmus+-Projekts: Internationalisierung und Weiterentwicklung des Doktorandenstudiums 2018-1-SK01-KA203-046375, 26.–30. April 2021 an der Universität Wrocław /

Krystian Suchorab, Uniwersytet Wrocławski (ORCID: 0000-0003-1831-7973)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-34 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 445–447

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Bericht über die 3. Internationale Tagung zur Phraseologie und Parömiologie: „Aktuelle Trends in der phraseologischen und parömiologischen Forschung weltweit”, 27.–29.5.2021, Institut für Germanistik der Universität Wrocław, online /

Joanna Szczęk, Uniwersytet Wrocławski (ORCID: 0000-0001-8721-6661)

DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.20-35 (data publikacji online: 2021-12-09)

s. 449–452

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