Linguistische Treffen in Wrocław
Numer 22 (2022): II
Redakcja: Iwona Bartoszewicz (Uniwersytet Wrocławski), Joanna Szczęk (Uniwersytet Wrocławski), Artur Tworek (Uniwersytet Wrocławski)
Der organisationelle Raum im Nutzungskonflikt: Streit um eine Hörsaalbesetzung an der Universität / In a Institutional Conflict: Dispute about the Occupation of a Lecture Hall at the University
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-1 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: przestrzeń, interakcja, komunnikacja organizacyjna
Using the example of a lecture hall occupation, the question of the extent to which interaction and space are related is investigated. Space is described as a construct that is assigned certain usage options on the basis of institutional specifications. The question is what options the actors have for action. It is also about which oral and written forms of communication they can use and what legitimation they have to act. In organizational communication, it is now important to present one’s own actions to social groups in a consistent and comprehensible manner. This is important for decisions when one’s own actions and those of others are to be coordi- nated. An important point of reference is the mission statement formulated by the university, which contains essential values and guidelines for one’s own actions. In the case of the lecture hall being occupied by an environmental group, the mission statement is the essential basis of argumentation for the university management and its press office. The university sees itself as the actor that determines the action. It invokes traditional and established practices and its responsibility for its own members. In the present example, an environmental group tries to question these established and traditional practices in order to introduce their own forms of discourse. The environmental group gets into a conversational and a legal conflict with the university.
Translatorische Weglassungen und Hinzufügungen: PRO und CONTRA / Omission and Addition in the Translation: PRO and CONTRA
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-2 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: język techniczny wiadomości telewizyjnych, transformacje tłumaczeniowe, sytuacja komunikacyjna, pominięcie, dodanie, ekwiwalencja tłumaczeniowa
Omission and addition of information during the translation of TV news can significantly affect the text content, which, in turn, causes a change in pragmatic influence. Sometimes, omission of the information in the text weakens the pragmatics, which the author of the source text originally laid in the text itself. Such translation transformations can only be used in particular cases where, for example, cultural-specific information of the news is unimportant for its recipient, excessive or impossible to understand. It can be transmitted correctly by means of the target language without additional expla- nation (e.g. in the form of footnotes, the use of which during the TV news translation is impossible). However, the question of unimportance of information is rather subjective; a translator may omit the information in the text by mistake, even though it has an implicit meaning in terms of informational value. A translator should carefully use such translation transformations as omission, especially when TV news is discussed. After all, TV news texts are carefully created, and the information is selected in a way to inform a recipient and to make a certain impact on his thoughts, to form his outlook, to change or to fix his vision of a particular event that has taken place or is discussed in TV news. But, if a translator uses such transformations, they can have a significant effect on the text content. This can provoke the shift or deformation of the text coherence because the omission of a phrase affects the syntactic structure of the sentence, and the omission of one or more sentences can affect textuality in general. For example, some important information may remain out of focus. Alternatively, new semantic colors or shades that are absent from the source text may appear after adding a single word. By adding information to the translation text, the information service tries to influence the Ukrainian-speaking recipient, partially changing the pragmatics of the original text. If a recipient does not speak German, this discrepancy will hardly be noticeable. However, this should not be the norm, as translators should make the translation as equivalent as possible in order to avoid such errors.
Kommunikativ-pragmatische Determiniertheit des internationalen Dokuments „Charta“ (am Beispiel der Europäischen Charta der Regional- oder Minderheitensprachen) / Communicative-Pragmatic Determination of the International Document “Charter” (Using the Example of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages)
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-3 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: charter, komunikatywno-pragmatyczny, proza faktograficzna, dokument, typ tekstu
The traditional interpretation of the term “non-fiction/official” includes a number of features that are often mandatory for their texts. In modern linguistics the non-fiction/official prose is interpreted differently, which can be traced back to the analysis of the research objects under new aspects. As a result of this process, we can observe that theoretical terms have lost their definitional precision and that their boundaries are often fluid. In the present article the attempt is made to show the relativity of constraint features for non-fiction/official prose using the example of the international document “Charter”, which is characterized from a communicative-pragmatic point of view. In doing so, the peculiarities of pragmatic strategies and tactics of a collective author are taken into account and their use of language in relation to a collective recipient is worked out. The analysis of the communication situation, inherent to a Charter, which typifies the characteristics of the text subtype “Charter”, has pointed out the relativity of characteristics and confirmed it. As an international document, the Charter has the characteristics of a law addressed to professionals as well as to the broad mass of the population. The peculiarity of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages consists in the possibility of choosing the appropriate clause for the activities of the state and municipal organs according to the language-political situation on site, which the Charter as a legal sub-type of the documents “de lege ferenda” with less mandatory Forms character. This feature of the charter has a particularly strong impact on its third part, demonstrating the influence of the pragmatic communication goal on the modification of the text type form in its linguistic form.
ANGST und VERDRUSS. Sprachliche Expressivität im soziokulturellen Kontext / FEAR and IRRITATION. Linguistic Expressivity in a Socio-cultural Context
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-4 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: emocje, socjologia emocji, kultura, gniew, strach, semantyzacja emocji
The insights and findings of the neurosciences and cognitive sciences in particular have brought new momentum to emotion research. The hitherto underestimated social contexts of emotions have become the focus of research interest. From this perspective, emotions are understood as the result of sociocultural imprinting. They are subject to the control of culture, which is revealed in sociologically conventional, prototypical emotional behaviour and in a corresponding mode of expression. If one defines emotions as an inner human state, they are assigned to the area of responsibility of psychology in the traditional classification of science. However, it is increasingly being recognized that a purely psychological approach to emotionality is insufficient. Only the inclusion of the basic paradigms of other disciplines, including linguistics, anthropology, cultural studies and sociology, allows to grasp the complexity of this field of research. The article, which uses the inductive method, aims to identify the emotional schemata encoded in language, regulated in the course of socialization, containing the biological, mimic and behavioral interpretative signals, and to uncover the existing parallels in the manifestation of emotions IRRITATION and FEAR in German and Polish. The focus of the corpus-based analysis is on the semantic possibilities of reaction patterns that are distinctive for the emotions under investigation. In the paper, the phraseological units from the denotative domains IRRITATION and FEAR are discussed in relation to their sociocultural motivation. In doing so, both the supra-singular, in that phraseologisms of an international character are dealt with, and the singular, which is illustrated by means of the singular language-specific phrases, are expressed. The article is intended as a contribution to the discourse on the interdisciplinary approach to emotion research.
Markennamen als sprachliche und kulturelle Identitätsträger / Brand Names and Cultural Identity: A Short Overview
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-5 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: marka, nazwa marki, Foreign Language Display, Country-of-origin
Brand names play a special role for companies: they both convey and guarantee brand value. Despite their special status in brand management, and although the number of brand names is estimated to be over 43 million (!) worldwide, brand names are an underresearched area of linguistics. Brand names are often researched in a marketing context: the effectiveness of brand names is analyzed and suggested catalogs for “good” and “bad” brand names are created. Brand names are however also part of the language and can therefore be also analyzed using linguistic methods. As part of language, brand names are the bearers of a culture’s identity: they can be used to identify a specific culture, or even a specific historical epoch. This cultural identity-bearing and cultural identity conveying function is also recognized by companies: they often create and use brand names in order to consciously associate the given brand with a certain culture. In the article, these identity-giving and -bearing specifics of brand names are analyzed: we show how the Country-of-origin can be pointed out with linguistic and nonlinguistic devices, we show how Foreign Language Display can help to transfer cultural connotations to a brand and we show the possibilities for translating brand names. We argue that brand names should thus be better integrated into interdisciplinary linguistic research; also with the aim of showing new career prospects for (applied) linguists.
Versuch einer schärferen Konturierung des Kulturembegriffs / An Attempt to Sharpen the Concept of Cultureme
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-6 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: kulturem, kultura, pamięć zbiorowa, tożsamość, tożsamość narodowa, duma narodowa
This paper makes an effort to specify the notion of cultureme which has circulated in the humanities for a quite long time. Since the introduction of this notion some 30 years ago, researchers have been consistently conducted studies on culturemes, however with the possible side effect of overloading and inflating the category in question. Despite that, it is worth a try to capitalise on the heterogenity of the cultureme notion and to enhance the handling of this seemingly omnipotent category through conceptual fusions or synergies. Such an attempt will be made here, and it will be founded on linking culture to collective memory and identity. In this trialistic attraction field there will be made a kind of conceptual deep drilling, taking its point of departure in the notion of identity. One of the most important identity poles for EU citizens can be seen in national identity (Fukuyama 2019: 182), therefore it will serve as a continuation point for the specification of the cultureme notion, which will certainly not get around an empirically hedged operationalisation of the targeted reference point (i.e. national identity). It is for instance possible in this context to base the required operationalisation on the sociologically established category of national pride, which is as well referred back in the article. As a final outcome a realignment of the cultureme notion is offered for discussion.
Ironie in den politischen Wahlreden als Strategie im Kampf um Wähler / Irony in Political Election Speeches as a Strategy in the Fight for Electors
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-7 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: humor polityczny, ironia w języku politycznym, język prawicowych populistów
The language of populists uses arguments of strong power of persuasion resulting not from their rationality but from, first of all, the degree of emotions present in the transmission. Populism assumes promoting political ideas consistent with expectations of majority of the public in order to achieve their support, influence them, or to gain power. As the parliament election results show, the number of right-winged parties including right-wing populists in Europe has been rising recently. The common constituent in their narration of the world is the language which is strictly connected with promoting a specific system of values. The article is devoted to irony in political communication. The aim of irony as a tool of political humour is negative valuation, building one’s own image (of a politician, political party, electoral programme) through discrediting of a political opponent. Ironic expressions used by right-wing populists in their political speeches during their meetings with voters are the subject of the analysis of this article. Populism assumes promoting political ideas consistent with expectations of majority of the public in order to achieve their support, influence them or to gain power.
Interdisziplinäres Marketing. Marketing und Linguistik / Interdisciplinary Marketing. Marketing and Linguistics
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-8 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: działania marketingowe, komunikacja marketingowa, reklama, lingwistyka rynkowa
Marketing is an interdisciplinary field of science. Many fields of science support the successful marketing activities of companies, such as sociology, psychology, management, mathematics, statistics, anthropology, computer science, aesthetics. Sociology and psychology help in the analysis of customer and consumer behavior, mathematics and statistics in the evaluation of primary research results, and information technology supports the functioning of online marketing. Information technology supports the functioning of online marketing. Sociology, anthropology and psychology can be used to successfully analyse customer and consumer behaviour. Management helps in running the business, aesthetics contributes to the design of the imaginative and creative advertisements. At the same time, there is relatively little talk about the role of linguistics, although effective marketing communication is based on an imaginative, linguistically correct, well-formulated message, above all tailored to the needs of the target group, through which potential customers can be addressed. Linguists are of great help in successfully implementing corporate marketing communications. Linguistics examines – among other things – the characteristics of advertising and advertising language. The linguistic research can therefore contribute to the conscious and professional design of advertising, the advertising message. But the important role of linguistics in conducting marketing communication activities as well as research is often underestimated. The article presents the importance of linguistics and marketolinguistics with regard to marketing communication.
„Unser Allergnädigster Herr, Kaiser und König Franz Joseph I.“. Sprachmanipulationsmittel bei der Darstellung von Franz Joseph in der „Krakauer Zeitung“ (1916). Analyse anhand der Pressetexte über die Reaktionen von Deutschen und Polen auf Franz Josephs Tod / “Our Most Gracious Lord, Emperor and King Franz Joseph I”. Means of Language Manipulation in the Depiction of Franz Joseph in the “Krakauer Zeitung” (1916). Analysis Based on Press Releases about the Reactions of Germans and Poles to Franz Joseph’s Death
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-9 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: manipulacja językowa, cesarz Franciszek Józef I, Niemcy, Polacy, I wojna światowa
The main goal of present article is to investigate the means of language manipulation in the depiction of emperor Franz Joseph I, who died on November 21, 1916. The analysed texts, which were published in the first days after his death, are taken from the Austro-Hungarian daily newspaper “Krakauer Zeitung”. The focus of interest are precisely those press releases in which the reactions of Germans and Poles at the time to the death of the emperor are described. The analysis shows how the deceased Franz Joseph was portrayed in the mentioned articles. The analytical part containsreconstruction of the image of Franz Joseph from the point of view of the Germans and Poles of the times.
„Die Kürze würzen“: Zu den sprichwörtlichen Aphorismen von Alexander Eilers / “Spicing up Brevity”: The Proverbial Aphorisms by Alexander Eilers
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-10 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: antyfraza, aforyzm, definicja, Aleksander Eilers, innowacja, idiom, przysłowie, gra słów, cytat
Alexander Eilers (born 1976) has not only made a name for himself as an aphoristic writer of several vo- lumes but has also assisted younger aphoristic authors whose aphorisms he has edited. With a doctorate in English language and literature at the University of Gießen he has occupied himself with the genre of aphorisms and written several meta-aphorisms. Repeatedly his texts that start with an individual word that in turn is defined by the addition of a proverbial expression. Other aphorisms begin with an expression that is expanded by a short commentary. Again and again expressions are questioned which at times leads to innovative statements by the mere substitution of a letter or word. Not only classical, biblical, and folkloric expressions appear, but Eilers also exhibits an extensive repertoire of quotations and proverbs. This traditional language material is manipulated and at times leads to expressive anti- proverbs. 386 texts of the 2142 aphorisms or 18% start from such formulaic expressions. They show that Eilers occupies himself intensively with proverbial language that he changes linguistically and thematically to insightful statements about the modern world.
„Was hat Europa mit mir zu tun?“ Europa in den Augen junger Politiker_innen – eine diskurslinguistische Analyse von Twitter-Beiträgen ausgewählter polnischer Jugendorganisationen / “What Does Europe Have to Do with Me?” Europe in the Eyes of Young Politicians – a Discourse-linguistic Analysis of Twitter Posts by Selected Polish Youth Politics Organisations
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-11 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: dyskurs, wzorce argumentacji, Europa, organizacja młodzieżowa
This article focuses on social media i.e. it presents the analysis of Twitter posts written by Polish youth organisations of parties represented in the Polish parliament. Moreover, the article explores the question of the discursive status and discursive performance of Europe / the European Union. In doing so, a discourse-linguistic perspective is pursued; the investigation is oriented towards the discourse-linguistic topos concept. The article aims at both identifying the dominant topos in the analysed section of the discourse on Europe and discussing its linguistic realisation.
O mierzeniu jakości tekstów tłumaczonych metodą a vista / About Quality Measurement of Sight Translated Texts
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-12 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: tłumaczenie a vista, jakość, kryteria
The title of this text refers to a book by Dybiec-Gajer (2013) who investigated vast range of issues concerning quality assessment in written translation. This paper attempts to identify such quality assessment criteria which are indispensable when evaluating a target text produced in sight translation. There are no specific guidelines which would directly apply to this type of translation. Pinpointing categories which have to be taken into account when performing sight translation is necessary to establish effective communication (according to anthropocentric paradigm, see S. Grucza 2012) or to achieve desirable quality of the service provided by an interpreter. On the other hand, being aware of quality assessment criteria in sight translation demonstrated by a translator/interpreter trainer and translation/interpreting trainees affects the effectiveness of sight translation teaching. Consequently, it may result in better prepared candidates for a national sworn translator exam in Poland, which encompasses a sight translation task. In order to develop a set of criteria necessary to evaluate a sight translated text, this paper presents categories established as a result of research on quality assessment criteria in conference interpreting. Furthermore, this text lays down quality assessment criteria applied in research on sight translation as well as criteria adopted for testing candidates who take a sworn translator exam in Poland. The elements listed above may provide solid foundations for the development of quality assessment criteria in sight translation.
Intermediale Komponenten, Beziehungen und Funktionen in öffentlichen Stadttexten / Intermedial Components, Relations and Functions in Public Urban Texts
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-13 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: intermedialność, teksty miejskie, pejzaże językowe
Contemporary texts in public space offer different forms and functions. Regulative, commercial, transgressive and last but not least pandemic texts use multimodal means in the composition of text forms and for the transfer of corresponding information, offers, bids or bans. The spectrum of use is truly extensive. Against this background, the article asks about intermediality in urban texts such as posters and notices, because intermedial relations – mainly known from audiovisual and hypertextual contexts – are efficient strategies of textual effect. The phenomenon of intermediality is explained from the perspective of components, relationships and functions in the text because these three kinds of manifestation can synthetically show the emergence and pragmatic manifestation of intermediality. Individual examples are from June and July 2021 and were photographed in Warsaw, Berlin and Luxembourg.
Kohärenzbildung in mehreren Sprachen. Überlegungen zu einem Analyseverfahren bei der Erforschung der individuellen Mehrsprachigkeit von angehenden Lehrpersonen für Englisch undDeutsch mit L1 Ungarisch am Beispiel der Textproduktion / Coherence Formation in Multiple Languages. Reflections on Individual Multilingualism of Prospective English-German Teachers with L1 Hungarian Using Text Production as an Example
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-14 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: wielojęzyczność indywidualna, tworzenie spójności, produkcja tekstu, procedury analizy
This paper is devoted to the topic of coherence formation in three languages. In doing so, it presents an analysis procedure that aims to explore the interplay between text depth structure and text surface in comprehension. The paper investigates which text grammatical means are important in establishing text coherence in different languages and what influence they have on coherence formation in text comprehension. In coherence formation, the cohesion-creating linguistic devices visible on the text surface play a significant role. In this paper, resumption structure, conjunction, article use, and tense use are investigated in terms of their importance for coherence formation in text production in several languages. The investigation is based on student texts produced in a pilot study during the paraphrasing of source texts in three languages (Hungarian, German, English). These texts are subjected to an analysis procedure in this paper. The aim of the study is to record the conscious use of text grammatical devices and to describe similarities or differences between texts in the three languages. In the present paper, the question is addressed whether the text analysis procedure used to analyse the student texts proves to be purposeful and suitable in exploring the specifics of individual multilingualism among prospective teachers.
Die multimodale Analyse der Wahlplakate zur Zwickauer Oberbürgermeisterwahl 2020 / A Multimodal Analysis of Election Posters During the 2020 Elections of the Mayor in Zwickau
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-15 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: komunikacja polityczna, komunikacja w kampaniach wyborczych, multimodalność, pejzaż językowy
In order to convince as many voters as possible to vote for their own party, different analogue and digital communication formats are used in the context of election campaign communication. In the public space, election posters in particular attract our attention in this context, which, in addition to a catchy color design, are characterized by the linguistic (and non-linguistic) brevity with which they communicate central election campaign arguments. In the present article, we analyze the election posters of the five candidates who presented themselves during the elections for the mayor in Zwickau in 2020. The linguistic and semiotic analysis is qualitative-oriented and aims at contrasting the communicative strategies of the involved candidates. In this context, the fact that the election posters are tied to a certain place has an impact on the possible communicative effect.
Das Phantom in der deutschsprachigen Weltliteratur – der Schriftsteller B. Traven / The Phantom of the German World Literature – the Author B. Traven
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-16 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: Traven, pisarz niemiecki, krytyka społeczna, krytyka kapitalizmu
This contribution pays tribute to the German-Mexican author B. Traven, as one of the most read novelists in the German language in the middle of the 20th century. B. Traven became known for his novels and stories, which are adventurous and set in exotic surroundings, though primarily intended to express criticism of capitalism and social conditions. Most of his works were filmed in Mexico, the USA and Germany. The American fictional film based on one of his most famous books “The Treasure of the Sierra Madre” won several Academy Awards (Oscars). At the peak of his creative power, a Swedish daily newspaper proposed B. Traven for the Nobel Prize for Literature. B. Traven successfully concealed the identity of his person through the use of numerous pseudonyms. For decades, German linguists and journalists have been looking for the person behind the pseudonym B. Traven. Pursuant to available data it is certain that he worked under the name Ret Marut in Germany as a labor union secretary and left-wing, revolutionary activist before emigrating to Mexico. Because of this, people from the working class, sailors, Native Americans (Indians) and other oppressed members of the society who oppose their exploitation played key roles in his works. In the meantime, several researchers assume that B. Traven was born as Hermann Albert Otto Maximilian Feige in Schwiebus, now Poland. For B. Traven, however, the impact of his works was always more important than his identity.
Korpusbasierte Analyse vorgeformter Ausdrücke in natürlichen Gesprächen / Corpus-Based Study of Prefabricated Expressions in Naturally Occurring Conversations
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-17 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: prefabrykowany język, naturalne rozmowy, edycja konwersacyjna, kontekst
Usage and function of prefabricated or phraseological expressions have so far been analyzed recurring to mainly written, often journalistic or literary language productions. Conversational form of usage and interactive aspects could therefore not been taken into account as they are accessible exclusively through the analysis of oral and dialogical corpora. This paper thus focuses on the study of sequences from German talk shows and other conversational corpora in order to shed light on different aspects of the use of prefabricated turns in naturally occurring conversations. Firstly, actually produced forms of phrasemes in everyday conversation are being analyzed, frequently differing from those lemmatized in dictionaries. Seconly, routine formulae, inextricably linked to specific communicative situations, are being defined as belonging to the class of phrasemes on behalf of their polyfactoriality even when they are monolexical. The central section of the paper then deals with the interactive conversational treatment of idiomatic expressions as one important category of phrasemes via the conversational activities of participants: rephrasals and paraphrases of different kinds, play on words or idioms or else cumulative use of idioms in mainly final phases of sequences or conversations. However, some of them also remain untreated so that the analyst cannot conclude to an adequate semantic interpretation by the recipient. Quite frequently, nevertheless, contextual elements of a semantic and/or thematic nature make an appropriate interpretation reasonably likely. Based on these considerations the paper finally formulates necessary consequences for linguistics in general, for lexicology and lexicography as well as foreign language teaching.
Sprachliche Unhöflichkeit in der polnischen Politik: Krystyna Pawłowicz’ Invektiven auf Twitter / Verbal Impoliteness in Polish Politics: Krystyna Pawłowicz’ Invectives on Twitter
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-18 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: niegrzeczność językowa, Twitter, dyskurs polityczny
According to sociological sciences, every person has a face, which forms the positive social value acquired for himself through the behavioral strategy (cf. Goffman 1955, 1967). Face is influenced by various social processes, and impoliteness is one of the most important threat factors (cf. Szczęk 2018). Verbal impoliteness in Polish politics is the subject of the following article, which analyzed Twitter posts by Krystyna Pawłowicz. This law professor, former member of parliament and current judge of the Polish Constitutional Court, who is one of the most active politicians on social media, is known for her sometimes aggressive and offensive language. For this study, 49 tweets were collected, which were then divided into two groups. One constituted examples of conventionalized impoliteness, while the second consisted of examples of implied impoliteness. The analysis showed that Pawłowicz almost exclusively targeted opposition politicians (mostly Donald Tusk) and members of the LGBT community, by attacking their quality face and face of social identities. It has sought to show addressees appearance, skills, political competencies, or sexual orientation in a bad light. Aggressive illocution should not only lead to the destruction of the world and the listener’s value system but can also be motivated by struggle for power. Krystyna Pawłowicz’s attacks on the opposition are also full of political motivation. She can draw profits from the affective and at the same time compelling function of her statements and resulting disparagement of political opponents.
Zum Pertinenzdativ im Deutschen – Beobachtungen bei Wetterverben / The Pertinence Dative in German – Observations about Weather Verbs
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-19 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: czasowniki pogodowe, celownik przynależności, relacja possessor-possessum, wzorzec walencyjny, dynamizacja
The pertinence dative constitutes one of the peripheral uses of the dative phrase in German. As a combinatorial case in connection with an accusative or directive complement, it conveys a possessor-possessum relation. On the basis of peripheral verbs, the weather verbs, it will be shown that this combinatorial case, which is used to express motion towards a living being, is quite characteristic of this verb group, both in the inherent meaning of the lexeme and in the meaning caused by metaphorical reinterpretations of the lexeme. After a brief overview of descriptions of the PD in the relevant literature, its occurrence in constructions with weather verbs is subjected to a more detailed analysis. The metaphorical reinterpretations are related, among other things, to the interpretation of precipitation verbs and verbs of air movement as verbs of motion, and accordingly, the interpretation of thunderstorm verbs as verbs of noise.
Namentranslation in der Praxis – linguistische und kulturelle Überlegungen / Translation of Names in Practice – Linguistic and Cultural Considerations
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-20 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: nazwy własne, znaczenie nazw, tłumaczenie nazw
Proper names are regarded as “special” linguistic signs, whose translation possibility is judged very differently in the linguistic literature. This is related to the supposed “meaninglessness” or the limited meaning of proper names. This article aims to shed light on the translation practice regarding proper names by means of an empirical study in the language pair German-Hungarian. To this end, an online survey was conducted among Hungarian professional translators, asking about translational attitudes on the one hand, and practical translation solutions on the other. The rendering of names in translation thus consists of a mesh of linguistic, cultural and practical decisions.
Dänisch in Zeiten der Globalisierung – Englische Einflüsse auf die dänischeGegenwartssprache / Danish in the Times of Globalization – English Influence on the Contemporary Danish Language
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-21 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: loan-word, English influence, Danish
Languages influence each other, and Danish is no exception in this context. In the times of globalization the influence comes mainly from English. The aim of the present paper is to demonstrate the historical ties between the two above-mentioned languages and, based on multiple linguistic studies, to gauge whether Danish is endangered by English or not. In addition, the paper touches on topics such as language policy, Danish speakers’ attitudes towards English, and statistical research.
Das verschleierte Bild zu Saïs. Von Fiktionen, die wahrlich keine sind / The Veiled Image of Saïs. Of Fictions that are Truly not Fictions
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-22 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: poznanie, semantyka, filozofia języka, terminologizacja
In the epistemological consideration of the function of language, an attempt is made to record how man (the author) linguistically gives existence to his thoughts. In my contribution, I will address the structu- ral dependence of the meaning of the term fiction in private law on the choice of the reference variable on which this term is based. With reference to the conference theme, I will discuss the interaction of different factors in the linguistic formulation of a concept that is central to private law. Epistemological, ontological, historical, etymological and axiological factors will be dealt with. The conclusion of the lecture will argue for the assumption that knowledge of unadulterated truth should not be sought in fragmented images.
Ein Konzept für einen Deutschlandismus-Duden / A Concept for a Dictionary of Germanisms
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-23 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: Duden, germanizm/niemcyzm/ wyrażenia typowo niemieckie (die für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland typischen Lexeme/Ausdrücke/Wendungen), pluricentryzm, słownik
Several Austrians have already worked and published on the Austrian variety of German. Of course, definitions of Germanisms/Teutonisms (= the lexemes/expressions/phrases typical for the Federal Republic of Germany) also occur in these considerations, but they have never been summarised in a corresponding dictionary. For a Germanisms dictionary, which could strengthen the Germans’ awareness of which national variants are typical/characteristic for their country, one would have to create a transnational cooperative concept – and such a concept will be presented in this paper. In addition, this Germanisms-Duden would also be of great use to (Polish) learners and teachers of German as a foreign language, as a necessary addition to their pluricentric knowledge and as a reference work.
Zur Pragmatik des Genderns. Das Partizip I in Text und Situation / Remarks on Gender-Neutral Speech. Participle I in Text and Situation
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-24 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: gender, imiesłów, nomen agentis, sytuacja
‘Participle I’ often displaces masculine nomina agentis, especially because it can be used neutrally without indicating gender. A more precise analysis of such substitutions in their contexts makes clear that the grammatically based difference is still effective even in lexicalised forms. Opportunities to find gender-neutral language therefore requires the pragmatics of the description of language in authentic texts which are always formulated in special situations.
Badania fonetyczne a glottodydaktyka – samogłoski języka niderlandzkiego w wymowie rodzimych użytkowników polszczyzny / Phonetic Research and Foreign Language Teaching – Dutch Vowels in the Pronunciation of Native Speakers of Polish
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-25 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: wymowa, dydaktyka języka obcego, język niderlandzki, fonetyka, samogłoski
Phonetic research is both valid and important in the context of teaching foreign pronunciation. Its results provide methodological guidelines as well as they facilitate understanding of certain linguistic phenomena. The present paper is a review article of a recent monograph written by Zuzanna Czerwonka-Wajda, entitled “Wymowa samogłosek niderlandzkich przez osoby polskojęzyczne. Teoria, praktyka i dydaktyka” (Wrocław 2022: Oficyna Wydawnicza ATUT – Wrocławskie Wydawnictwo Oświatowe). The monograph is situated within the field of phonetics and is concerned with the pronunciation of Dutch vowels by native speakers of Polish. What seems important and particularly valuable, the book presents multifaceted research: theoretical, practical and foreign language teaching issues are being analysed. The author focuses not only on discussing concepts such as e.g. transfer, interference, norm
Die Dialekt-Debatte im „Heimatbrief“ des Heimatkreises Mies-Pilsen 1950 / The Dialect Debate in the „Heimatbrief“ – Magazin of the Heimatkreis Mies-Pilsen 1950
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-26 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: Pilsen, Plzeň, Mies, Stříbro, Niemcy sudeccy, Niemieckie Czechy, dialekt, tożsamość, północnobawarski, Egerländisch
The former German Bohemian minority that lived in the city of Pilsen (in Czech: Plzeň) and the West Bohemian district of Mies (Stříbro) until the forced resettlement in 1945/46, remains an almost blank spot in the context of research on Germans in the Bohemian lands. In this article, contributions from the journal „Mies-Pilsner Heimatbrief“ from 1950 are analysed and considered for the first time as a source type for the topic mentioned. The following questions were investigated: Which language varieties did the German residents of the city of Pilsen and the rural Mieser area use? Which language attitudes towards dialect and standard language did they represent? And what was the significance of dialect for their identity? These questions are dealt with by way of example using a dialect debate in the aforementioned monthly. In the second year of the magazine, a letter to the editor called for the publication of dialect stories to be stopped. In the following three editions, five other readers speak up, who vehemently contradict this demand and explain why dialect texts and dialect as such are valuable in their opinion. A native Pilsener even partially phrased his letter to the editor in his native dialect. In a brief analysis, this text turns out to be in northern Bavarian dialect, or in Egerland dialect, as he calls it. In addition to these structural linguistic investigations, the arguments used in letters to the editor to reject or approve dialect (texts) are considered from a sociolinguistic point of view. In this way we also learn something about the identity of the West Bohemian expellees. On the one hand, the arguments are of a general nature, such as that the dialect represents the “actual mother tongue”. On the other hand, the specific situation after the expulsion is discussed, in which the dialect represents „a piece of home“ in the foreign country for the Sudeten Germans. This intangible cultural heritage of the homeland should therefore continue to be cultivated and passed on to the next generation. At the end of the last letter to the editor, the editor of the magazine finally announced that texts in the dialect of Western Bohemia should continue to be printed in the future.
Wichtige Bemerkungen zu unbeabsichtigten Sprechwirkungen der nichtmuttersprachlichen Vortragenden auf die deutschsprachigen Rezipienten / Important Remarks on the Unintended Speech Effects of the Non-native Speakers by the German-speaking Recipients
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-27 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: wpływ mowy na odbiorców, referat, prosodia, retoryka
Effective presentation is a skill wanted by many. This competence is of great relevance for scientific lectures and can be transferred to other speech situations such as student seminar papers or oral presentations. How to achieve the intended speech effects and how to act rhetorically competently is often explained in the scientific literature. However, this monograph is also devoted to the unintended effects of speech, taking into account their causes.
Zur kommunikativen Rolle reduzierter Lautstärke in Konferenzvorträgen / On the Communicative Role of Reduced Loudness in Conference Presentations
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-28 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: zredukowana głośność, intensywność,, referaty konferencyjne
This paper aims to investigate the communicative role of reduced loudness in conference presentations based on auditory perception from a conversation analytic perspective. The subject of the study are five linguistic expert lectures recorded at international conferences in Germany within the framework of the GeWiss project. The focus of the investigation is on those passages that are pronounced much more quietly in contrast to the immediate (left and right) context. The auditory analysis is followed by the acoustic measurements performed with Praat, which exemplifies the intensity course with the graphs. The analysis is done within the framework of interactional linguistics. This means that the empirical data are interpreted in a specific (speech)situational context. From the analysis, it appears that the reduced loudness fulfills an important communicative function in the design of the scientific lectures, which is to signal the less relevance in the (con)textual information hierarchy. It was observed that the speakers pronounce certain contents (comments on the speech situation, additions added as supplement or extension to what is said, remarks on the research background, and meta-commentaries) more quietly to mark them prosodically as secondary and thus to weaken their effect. In this context, the reduced loudness proves to be an anti-emphasis, allowing the speakers to divert the listeners’ attention from the less important or non-pertinent information in the scientific presentations.
Implikationen zur Vermittlung der phonostilistischen Differenzierung der bundesdeutschen Standardaussprache im Fach DaF / Implications for Conveying the Phono-Stylistic Differentiation of the German Standard Pronunciation in DaF
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-29 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: wymowa standardowa, kompetencja fonetyczna, fonostylistyka, redukcjonizmy, język niemiecki jako obcy
The German standard pronunciation does not represent a homogeneous structure. In the research of Halle linguistics, these aspects were often made the subject of research. Further research is currently being carried out in this field of standard phonetics. In the subject of German as a foreign language, especially in German studies abroad, the phonostylistic diversity of the standard pronunciation compared to English is rarely discussed. Both theoretical and methodological foundations appeared in a few publications. In this paper, phonetic reductionisms are therefore initially outlined from a normphonetic point of view. Then some phonostilistic questions are taken up and their relevance for the development of receptive language competence is examined. At the end, selected sound phenomena are prepared and exemplified by phonodidactics.
Rechtsextremismus – Seine Bezüge auf die germanische Kultur und die nordisch-germanische Mythologie / The Far Right – Its References to Germanic Culture and Norse-Germanic Mythology
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-30 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: prawicowy ekstremizm, Germanie, mitologia, recepcja
In the review article is the book by Georg Schuppener disscused under the title “The shadows of the ancestors. The reception of Germanic culture on the German-speaking far right”. This is the next book by the author, in which on the one hand he touches on topics related to the language of German far right, on the other hand he points out the different references, e.g. to Germanic history, culture or mythology, which right-wing extremists use to form their identity, tradition and to legitimize and underpin their beliefs and activities. As an introduction, the author explains the current state of research and what he believes to be the research deficits, as well as the concept and organizational forms of the far right. Georg Schuppener takes the diverse material for his research from social media, websites of right-wing extremist groups and their forums, and also analyzes song lyrics of the far-right bands. However, the author goes further in his research and examines the websites of the Internet shops that offer the far-right propaganda publications, clothing and music. Based on the corpus, he explains how and for what purposes various references to Germanic culture and Norse-Germanic mythology are realized by the far-right scene. He analyzes the wide range of T-shirts, jewellery, everyday objects or stickers that are used as carriers of symbolism related to Germanic cultural history or that convey messages of violence.
Humor revisited – alte und neue Aspekte in der Humorforschung / Humour revisited – Old and New Aspects of Humour Research
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-31 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: humor, komizm, śmiech, dowcip, memy
Almost all scientific disciplines have been researching humour since ancient times, so that the impression can arise that it has been thoroughly examined and explained. The number of publications on the subject „humour“, which has been increasing for many decades, registers differentiated approaches to various aspects of humour such as its manifestations, functions, means an mechanism, which can be reflected both on the linguistic level and on the visual level. Since humour is also regarded as a social phenomenon, the social context and the current refernce to reality should also be taken into account when examining it. The anthology „Mit Humor ist nicht immer zu spaßen. An der Grenze von Spaß und Ernst“ by Iwona Wowro und Mariusz Jakosz (eds.) provides seventeen contributions whose authors follow these starting points in their analyses and deal with humorous texts realized orally and linguistically.
Feste Wortverbindungen im Gebrauch – kommunikatives und funktionales Potenzial / Fixed Word Combinations in Use – Communicative and Functional Potential
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-32 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Słowa kluczowe: frezeologia, frazemy, funkcje frazemów, komunikacja
Fixed combinations of words, which are the subject of phraseology research, are characterized by different functions in communication. The topic of the use of phraseological units in certain texts or text types, i.e. their pragmatic potential, was examined in the work of Koller (1977) or Gülich (1978) at the end of the 1970s. The aim of the article is to discuss the results of a new publication from this area by Lüger/Bergerová/Schuppener (2021). It is an anthology that is divided into two thematic areas: phrasemes and their productivity as well as phrasemes in the text and in the discourse, and is rounded off with two reviews of current phraseological works. The collective monograph comprises a total of ten articles in which the problem of the communicative potential of phrases is examined from different perspectives. Various types of text are examined for the use of phraseologisms and their role in communication, e.g. press articles, multimodal online texts, advertisements, press horoscopes, election campaign speeches, etc. Depending on their own research goal and method, the authors concentrate in their investigations on a phrase or analyze the general occurrence of phraseologisms in a specific text. The contributions presented in the volume are not committed to a uniform methodology or material basis, which in this sense can be regarded as a great advantage. This is the basis of the variety of perspectives and the broad insight into the topic.
Bericht über den 6. Kongress des Mitteleuropäischen Germanistenverbands (MGV) vom 22. bis 24. September 2022 an der Warmia- und Mazury-Universität in Olsztyn/Allenstein (Polen) /
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-33 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)
Bericht über die internationale Tagung „Institution – Text – Raum“ (= Tage der Angewandten Linguistik V), 7.7.2022 (online) /
DOI: 10.23817/lingtreff.22-34 (data publikacji online: 2023-01-23)